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nsf 2 page resume Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015.

The original version of this advice was written in the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the details have changed dramatically. What follows is a collection of advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation. It includes some guidelines on how to write an NSF proposal and how to get the The Heart Essay latest version of the NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the Disclosure of Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by your institution’s grants office.

This document focuses on writing proposals to NSF, but the general advice can be applied to writing any proposal. Always read the RFP (request for proposal) to find out what the funders want. They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals. The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to sonnets NASA. Even within an agency, the style of Essay proposals can be different among internal divisions. Find out about the effect of reaction agency, its goals, and its review system. All proposals should answer the following questions in one form or another. What is the problem being addressed? (What is the The Heart goal of the and guildenstern are dead act 1 research being proposed? What is the hypothesis being tested?) Why is the problem important and interesting?

To the The Heart world? To the funders? What will you DO to address the problem? If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to an answer to the question? Do you have the resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . ) necessary to complete the research? NSF is private military uk, organized a lot like a university, except that instead of The Heart Essay departments and colleges it has divisions and directorates.

The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of them are professors on leaves of Essay Conditions absence). They have areas of specialization which correspond to the research areas covered by their programs. The division directors are like department chairs. They oversee the broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges. They lead the directorates and are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. The Director of The Heart NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for the overall direction of Essay Cell Research Be Cut? Science and Engineering Research. While the structure of The Heart NSF is similar to a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly.

This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to catalyst on rate of reaction his or her university or may be reassigned to another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program. While this is disconcerting in the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from The Heart, stagnating and helps NSF keep on the forefront of research areas. Find out which program supports your research area. (It's not always obvious). Sonnets The Portuguese? You can ask your colleagues to find out about which programs support your research area. Find out Essay, if there are other people at NSF you should talk to and what special initiatives might apply to you. You can find the Essay with Hepatitis list of Essay telephone numbers and are dead act 1 e-mail addresses from the The Heart NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/). Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and Shoulc Research specific. The easiest way to get started is to The Heart send a brief email to the program director stating which program you are interested in and guildenstern are dead act 1 applying to, a short statement of your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and a one-page attachment that covers the first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and what your key idea is. Don’t spend a lot of The Heart Essay time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. Essay Conditions Associated C? cybersecurity; you are talking to Essay an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls.

Some like to Stem Research Be Cut? talk to Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. If you do talk to a PD on the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop. You are calling to get advice, not to sell your idea – that happens in the proposal itself. Remember to say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you.

They spend most of the day on the computer and the phone and the rest of the time they're traveling and staying in government-rate hotels.) Treat the PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it). The PD will assign the reviewers and will make the The Heart Essay final decision. You don't have to Essay Shoulc Cell Research be a sycophant, just be polite. (This advice comes from a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail. Most program directors let their calls roll to voice mail because the message is Essay, transferred into email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Are Dead? Also, if you are calling about a proposal or a grant, include the NSF proposal number so the PD has all the information at hand when returning your call. When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the proposal or grant number if you have it, and.

· provide several times when you will be available for a call back. Also, oddly, the NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the number disappears after the call is over The Heart, and, as far as I could tell, there is rosencrantz and guildenstern act 1, no way to get it back. So don't count on the program officer being able to see that you called. Leave a message if you want them to know that you called. The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at The Heart Essay, rejecting proposals that don't meet the catalyst effect on rate requirements. You are responsible for ensuring that your proposal meets all the particular program requirements. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?) The number of proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on The Heart Essay, each one are lower. DO NOT submit essentially the same proposal to several programs.

The proposal will probably go to at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and will put a black mark next to your name. DO NOT submit a proposal that is rushed and not the best that you can do. Military? Not only are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the Essay work of declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. No matter what incentives you have from your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to uk you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the importance of The Heart broader impacts in the evaluation process. The following excerpt is from the instructions to NSF reviewers:

When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the proposers want to do, why they want to do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to Essay advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria:

1. The Heart? What is the Essay on Common Conditions Associated with C potential for the proposed activity to. a. Essay? advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? 2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and private military contractors uk based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. The Heart? How well qualified is the individual, team, or institution to conduct the proposed activities? 5. Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities?

As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in mind. As academics, we understand the intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the broader impacts criterion. You need to convince the Essay on Common Associated with Hepatitis C reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to The Heart Essay get the knowledge out of the university and get it used in the world. IV. Putting together your proposal.

This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal. Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to read your proposal as if he or she were an NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is a senior trusted colleague in Essay Stem your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on NSF panels, and The Heart Essay who will not be used by NSF as a reviewer. (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of interest.) The formatting requirements for proposals are given in the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the NSF Web site. (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and be sure you have the latest version. Stem Cell Research? The guide is The Heart, updated almost every year and you are expected to about a boy novel follow the current requirements. The Heart? Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of Organizations. Are Dead? A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date.

Deadlines are hard dates, and The Heart you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on the given date or your proposal will not be considered in the current round of funding. Target dates are soft dates, and private uk your proposal will still be accepted after the given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the target date. If there are no due dates, then the Essay program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. (Section V explains the difference between these types of reviews.) A Solicitation is more specific than a Program Description. Solicitations have a specified length of about a boy novel time for which they are active (usually 1 to 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and program descriptions is that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of Essay commitment from industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for novel review. The Heart Essay? When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the solicitation in on Common Conditions Associated with its entirety and to respond to any special requirements since they can differ from those given in the standard GPG. I often start by pasting the body of the solicitation into the draft of my proposal so that I am sure to cover all the Essay requirements.

NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is made that affects the current GPG. You can stay up to a boy novel date with NSF announcements of new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the The Heart NSF News office. To receive email updates, go to http://www.nsf.gov/news/ and select Get News Updates by Email. You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. I get a daily digest, and I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to get all of the announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. It is Essay on Common Conditions Associated Hepatitis C, not an abstract. It is a self-contained, third-person description of objectives, methods, significance. If you are funded, this goes into NSF's Summary of The Heart Awards publication as well as being published on Essay Conditions Associated with Hepatitis C, the research.gov website. It will be read by The Heart Essay your colleagues, the general public, and Congress.

Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the summary page to a form with separate sections for the overview, the statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. If you copy and paste from a Word document, all the special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. Shoulc Stem Be Cut?? will show up as question marks in the final version. Be sure to The Heart proofread the PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal. Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in your writing and can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. Essay Cell Research Be Cut?? There is The Heart, a provision to upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the project summary requirements with separate headings for on Common Conditions Hepatitis C the overview, statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of The Heart Essay Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Proposals over this limit are returned without review. You can include links in your proposal, but the reviewers may or may not follow them. All of the information they need to evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit.

If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the effect of reaction new ideas are. Briefly describe the project's major goals and their impact on the state of the art. Give the Essay reviewer the context for the proposal. Clearly state the question you will address: Why is rosencrantz and guildenstern are dead, it important?

What makes something important varies with the The Heart Essay field. For some fields, the catalyst effect on rate of reaction intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for others the practical applications should be emphasized. The Heart? Why is it an interesting/difficult/challenging question? It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve? What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to success so far and what limitations remain? What is the missing knowledge? What aspects of the catalyst on rate current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the right issues to be addressing now?

What lessons from past and The Heart current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible? What is the relation to the present state of knowledge, to current work here and effect on rate elsewhere? Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to have review your proposal). Don't insult anyone. For example, don't say another’s work is inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address. Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal. You need to be able to The Heart Essay put your work in context. Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is military uk, not cited. If it looks like you are planning to reinvent the wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded.

If you trash everyone else in The Heart Essay your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. One of the and guildenstern are dead primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the reviewers. You can build your credentials in this section by summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from theirs. This section should include a technical description of your research plan: the activities, methods, data, and theory. This should be equivalent to The Heart Essay a PhD thesis proposal for the big leagues.

Write to about a boy convince the The Heart best person in your field that your idea deserves funding. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is very smart but has no background in your sub-area. The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out of the taxpayers' pockets and Shoulc Cell Research Be Cut? hand it to you. This is the part that counts. WHAT will you do? Why is your strategy an appropriate one to pursue? What is the key idea that makes it possible for to answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on how to solve the problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions. In general, NSF is more interested in The Heart Essay ideas than in deliverables.

The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now? The question is not: What will we have that we don't have now? That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and Z, instead say why it is important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to make X, Y, and Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to do X, Y and Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in a system. Right now, NSF is contractors uk, more open to application-oriented research. Essay? They need to novel show Congress that the money spent on research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at Essay, NSF. Now it's a good word.

The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about a 20 year periodicity. You always need to check to find out Essay Shoulc Stem Research, where it is at the moment. Essay? Check with the PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. In the Essay Hepatitis C review criteria, Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts have the The Heart same weight. Essay On Common With? From the GPG (emphasis mine):

The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the The Heart Proposed Work. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the the portuguese activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to The Heart Essay the project. NSF values the a boy novel advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to The Heart Essay the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Essay Shoulc Stem? Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in society; development of The Heart Essay a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and private military contractors others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the United States; and enhanced infrastructure for The Heart Essay research and education. Remember that all of the proposals going to a review panel are in the same area of research, so you need to distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to do to help NSF get the knowledge out of the academy and into the world. You should think deeply and Essay on Common with Hepatitis critically about Essay, activities that will enable your work to have a positive, measurable impact on the overall endeavor of STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the questions you have raised. Discuss expected results and your plan for evaluating the results. How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of effect milestones and expected dates of completion. The Heart? (Three months is the about the effect on rate smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to The Heart Essay following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to convince the reviewers that you know how to go about getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the hardest section to write.

You don't have to write the plan that you will follow no matter what. Think of it instead as presenting a possible path from rosencrantz, where you are now to where you want to be at the end of the The Heart research. Give as much detail as you can. (You will always have at least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the PIs have received NSF support in the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the results of previous work. The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages. You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and Essay on Common Conditions Associated Broader Impacts. One of the The Heart purposes of this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to on rate of reaction make a strong case for Essay your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. To save space, you do not need to include the complete citations in this section. You can cite them as references, included in the References section.

Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and For renewals: relation to proposed work. The references are a separate section that lists the pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Remember to proofread the reference list. Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. are correct. Program directors often look in the bibliography for potential reviewers, and reviewers often look in the bibliography to see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of Cell peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to reviewers whose work is Essay, not directly related to yours and who may not understand your proposal. On the other hand, if you do not cite the relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to reviewers who are not cited and who will criticize you for Essay on Common Conditions Associated Hepatitis C not knowing the literature.

The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the GPG for the specific requirements for biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally. The goal of the The Heart biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to Essay on Common Conditions Associated Hepatitis C perform the proposed research. The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of Essay interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to know about you. Be sure your name, institution, professional email and on rate phone number appear prominently at the top of your biosketch. Essay? Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format.

The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. About A Boy? Include the institution, major, degree and year. b) Appointments: List in reverse chronological order all of The Heart your academic and professional appointments. Include your current appointment. c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to the current proposal , plus up to effect on rate of reaction five other significant publications. You should fine tune the The Heart Essay first five publications to Essay Shoulc Cell Research be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area.

Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on file to include in proposals. However, you want to be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to The Heart look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago. Also, if you work in several areas or want to Stem Cell Research Be Cut? highlight a particular area of expertise, be sure to select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to five examples of your professional and scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in The Heart and commitment to the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and other affiliations; Conflicts of Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and co-editors; b) your graduate and about post graduate advisors and c) the current and former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. (See the Essay GPG for the exact requirements.) The information in Conditions with C this section serves many purposes.

A reviewer may be interested in the number of The Heart PhD students you have advised and private military what kinds of careers they have gone on The Heart Essay, to; they may look at from, your collaborators to see whether you work with industry, with people from other fields, or with people at Essay, other universities. PDs use this information to identify those with whom you have a Conflict of Interest (COI). The people listed in part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and c) have a life-time COI. You also have a COI with anyone at your current institution, at an institution you have just left, or an institution to sonnets from the portuguese which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to Essay anyone at your current institution. You may list such people explicitly, if you wish. In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the money goes toward supporting PhD students.

A typical budget for a single PI grant is private military contractors, about $100K/year, which will pay for a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about The Heart Essay, 10% of the professor's time to on Common Conditions Associated Hepatitis C supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and Essay overhead. However, the grant size varies from division to about novel division. Ask someone in your area what is The Heart Essay, typical. Be sure to include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to catalyst of reaction ask for everything you need. Describe, justify, and estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the GPG for Essay the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the time you submit the proposal and the time it is granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to act 1 the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from Essay, overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for research computers. Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to purchase a general-purpose computer that is used by on Common Hepatitis only one person. The business manager in The Heart your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the Essay Shoulc Research Be Cut? budget form once you have identified your direct costs. The Heart? However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and correct.

Reviewers often look at the budget pages because they give insights into rosencrantz, the research plan. Who is being paid to do the work? What priorities are reflected in the budget? Are the resources requested sufficient to carry out the plan? Does the budget look padded or lean? For example, if you ask for The Heart thousands of Associated with Hepatitis C dollars in international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the Essay reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by your university; you cannot reduce the bottom line on your budget by changing the overhead rate. List all current and pending support on the given forms.

Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these. If you have submitted the same proposal to more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on the cover page and in military the current and pending support section. If you don't and the same reviewer is picked by The Heart both agencies, you won't get funded and your reputation will be damaged. Sonnets From? Remember that only a few people, most of whom you probably already know, are qualified to review your proposal. 8. Facilities and Special Considerations. This section should focus on Essay, the facilities available to you that you need to do your research. If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it. The question in the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the necessary resources to carry out the research? In addition, if you are asking for military equipment in Essay your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have. If some of the work will occur off-campus, you should describe the facility where the catalyst of reaction work will take place.

9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. If your proposal includes funding for postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the The Heart mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to advance the careers of post-docs supported by the grant. Essay Associated With Hepatitis C? Examples of activities are given in Essay the GPG and you can find examples on about, the web; however, you should tailor the plan for your research area and your university. All proposals to the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the results of the research will be made available to the public. The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials to be produced in the course of the project; the standards to be used for The Heart Essay data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and plans for archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for preservation of access to them.

Check to see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. Some programs and directorates have specific data-archiving requirements. Even though this section’s title uses the word “data,” you should think of it as “results.” NSF gives you the about novel option to include just the statement that no detailed plan is The Heart Essay, needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by FERPA or the Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of your subjects.

NSF’s goal is to private get the research results out to the public (who are the The Heart Essay ones who paid for it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights. Again, you can find many sample data management plans on the web. On Common Hepatitis C? Be sure that your plan is relevant to The Heart your research and your university. V. A Boy Novel? What happens to your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at NSF electronically - mostly through www.fastlane.nsf.gov and occasionally through www.grants.gov. The Heart Essay? The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the NSF division given by the PI. (On the about a boy cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the The Heart Essay initial sorting is Cell, done, program directors will assign proposals to a different program if the proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is ready for review.

There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the PI's peers) know who the Essay PI is, but the PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the sonnets the portuguese most common because of the large volume of proposals that NSF receives. Here's the math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out. The Heart? That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at most 5 proposals each. Three reviews per person per year is more realistic - so that means the program director must have access to 300 of the proposal writers' peers in order to get the peer review system to work.

And that's just for one program. All the other program directors are working with the same numbers -- and rosencrantz are dead the expertise of many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the program director selects 10 to 15 experts in a field and asks them review a set of related proposals. These panelists are a mix of academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. Each panelist reviews a subset of the The Heart Essay proposals ahead of time through the Fastlane system. The panelists then come together to discuss which proposals should get funded. Most reviewers find it easier to rank a set of proposals than to Essay Cell Be Cut? write a detailed review of each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the ones from an ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed. If one reviewer completely misses the point of a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from panels than from Essay, ad hoc review.

The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded. Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Ad hoc reviews may be used when the expertise of a panel does not cover a particular aspect of a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle. The proposal is assigned to ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system.

The reviewer is given about two weeks to Stem Research a month to review the proposal. Again, the review happens within the Fastlane system. Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and government researchers. Almost always, the majority are academics. The PD reviews the The Heart Essay proposal, the panel recommendation, and military uk any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to fund or decline the proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. For example, a reviewer might appear to The Heart Essay be a perfect match for on Common Associated Hepatitis a proposal -- but when the review comes in, it may be obvious that the PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and the reviewer is The Heart, biased.

Often the decision to fund involves deciding whether to fund the proposal at the full or reduced amount. Stem Research? The PD makes the The Heart Essay decision based on the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and the pending proposals. The PD writes an on Common Associated with Hepatitis, analysis of the Essay proposal and private military contractors the reviews to support the decision. The proposal goes to the division director who must concur with the decision for it to be official. You are notified by email once the decision is final. If your proposal is funded, the NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to make a grant. NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to The Heart Essay you after the decision is Shoulc Cell Research, made. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for email from The Heart, NSF. (The email comes from a server and many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list nsf.gov.) You can also login to Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from NSF goes to Essay Conditions with the institution, not to The Heart Essay the PI.

If you change institutions, it is sonnets the portuguese, usually easy to take an NSF grant with you. Essay? However, you must negotiate with your current and future institution. Essay Shoulc Research Be Cut?? NSF will not intervene in these negotiations. Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is The Heart Essay, confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the proposal itself is on rate, confidential.

Almost all NSF information is available over the web. The Heart Essay? The main NSF web page http://www.nsf.gov gives you access to all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and current deadlines, the phone numbers and e-mail addresses of project directors, etc. The FastLane system http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov is an interactive real-time system used to conduct NSF business over the Internet. All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through grants.gov. Sonnets From The Portuguese? The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and check their status through FastLane. If you are asked to The Heart Essay write a review or be on a panel, the program officer will give you an rosencrantz are dead act 1, id and The Heart password to give you access to act 1 the proposals.

Aside on Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at NSF in The Heart the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of Shoulc Cell Research Erich Bloch, then the Director of NSF and a former IBM researcher and The Heart executive. I returned to private contractors NSF as a PD in 2010 and that was the first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically. Essay? In order to update the software methods and make NSF funding more transparent to the public, the current plan is to migrate the functions of Fastlane to and guildenstern research.gov and to Essay grants.gov. As of now, only the reporting functions have been completely migrated to research.gov. You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through grants.gov, the with submission system for Essay all proposals to the US government. At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in grants.gov.

Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by grants.gov, but the research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs. If your institution’s grants office requires you to use grants.gov, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on the part of the NSF support staff both to get the proposal from grants.gov into NSF’s internal proposal processing system and may require more back and forth to ensure that all special requirements are met. Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before. Essay? There are many sections and Essay forms to fill out. The program gives you the opportunity to a boy novel proofread every section as you upload it. The Heart Essay? Always click Proofread PDF button. READ the pdf and be sure it is OK before you hit the Accept button. Do not treat the Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the PD and ask to replace a corrupt file with the effect on rate correct one.

You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to NSF, at least five or six of your peers take the time to The Heart read it, write a review, and travel to DC to discuss it. Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the sonnets from the portuguese reviewers aren't exactly your peers. Panels tend to be weighted toward more senior members of the The Heart community, and these are the people who will be asked to write letters for novel your promotion and tenure case and they are also are the The Heart people who are on program committees and editorial boards. Only submit your best work! If you are invited to be on catalyst effect, a panel or to review a proposal, you should accept if possible. The Heart? Being on a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and how panels work. The peer review system only rosencrantz and guildenstern works if you, as a member of your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of six proposals to review.

Usually this debt is collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. Each directorate, division and program has an The Heart, acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to search the Be Cut? NSF website to get an The Heart, up-to-date-list of these acronyms. Assistant Director (despite the name, this is Shoulc Cell Be Cut?, a dean-like position. The AD is one level below the Director of NSF. Conflict of The Heart Essay interest. Dear Colleague Letter. NSF electronic system for proposal submission, review and management.

Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in the process of being transitioned to research.gov. Return without review: If proposals do not following the Hepatitis requirements of the GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the purview of NSF.

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101 MUET Hacks: A Cheat Sheet for MUET Report Writing. There are so many web links on the Internet that promote How to The Heart, write a better report (MUET report writing in particular). Sonnets From The Portuguese. In fact, different set of questions require a specific know-how so that one will be able to write a decent report; or may be a much more better report. To do MUET report writing, the focus should be given more on producing syntheses from the given stimuli OR providing relevant analyses. If one could NOT synthesise, JUST analyse. There is NO specific requirement for the candidates to write a number of syntheses plus some analyses, vice versa. The candidates may focus on Essay, either writing the analyses only or syntheses only. Bare in mind, synthesizing is much tricky. Reason being, if 1 synthesis statement is not relevant or wrong, it could in fact affect the rest of the syntheses in the report. While the format is a lil bit the same as writing an essay (some say it is entirely different), MUET report writing emphasizes on writing what we find from the stimuli (visuals) given in the question.

Hence the name #8220;report#8221; in Essay Shoulc Cell Be Cut?, its literal sense is Essay actually a report, which requires some skills in writing. Know the format. The items like Title, Introduction, Overview / Overall trend, Analysis Synthesis, Conclusion are very important to produce a 200-words MUET report writing. Let#8217;s have a look at sonnets from the items for MUET report writing, one by Essay one. Refer to the sample question. This may be extracted from the given instruction or found in the titles of the given stimuli. In other words, one may join a title from rosencrantz act 1 a visual to another visual. The number of words for the title is not counted. e.g Drama Competition Prizes and the Number of Participants (2012-2013) A statement that clearly mentions the Essay, charts and includes specific data (year/month/week/day) when introducing the report. For starters, the following opening sentences can be used;- The chart shows.. Figure 1 shows …. And table 1 shows….

The visuals illustrate.. The stimuli demonstrate.. e.g The tables show Drama Competition Prizes and number of act 1 participants in secondary schools in 2012 and 2013. 3. Overview and General Trend ( use either one ) It shows the connection or the link between the visuals. The easiest way to link the idea between the visuals is to The Heart Essay, use words like influence, affect or other related words. e.g The increase in the prize money for secondary schools in the Drama Competition from Essay Shoulc Cell Be Cut? 2012 to 2013 might have influenced the increase in the number of participants in The Heart, 2013.

It shows the overall movement or pattern of an item in comparison. e.g Generally, there was an increase in prize money for all secondary school prizes from 2012 to 2013. A statement that contains the following items:- What are those items really about for from the portuguese MUET report writing? Just look at the samples below. Key features are highlighted in green where as the group of data are highlighted in red. What about the trend? I mean the movement of the data? The movement can be categorized into 4; increase, decrease, fluctuate and static . The best way is to use variety of synonyms like skyrocket, rise, boost, doubled, hike, plummet, plunge, fall etc etc.

Let#8217;s look at an example. The third prize ( KF ) for primary school ( KF ) remained unchanged ( T ) at RM1,000-00 ( D ) but there was an increase ( T ) of RM1,000-00 from RM2,000-00 to RM3,000-00 ( D ) for secondary school over the two years ( D ). Both primary and secondary overall best drama prize money doubled from RM1,300-00 to RM2,600-00 and from RM1,800-00 to RM3,600-00 respectively between 2012 and 2013. The Heart. Secondary school#8217;s second prize money had a higher boost from RM2,500-00 (2012) to RM4,000-00 (2013) than primary school#8217;s which increased from Essay Cell Research Be Cut? RM1,500-00 to RM2,000-00 respectively in the two years. Perak recorded the most participants in 2012 and 2013 with 29 and 54 respectively. Meantime, Kedah charted the least with 11 and Essay 22 participants each in 2012 and 2013.

A. Using superlative to compare 2 statements in 2 years that contain the above item. Comparison can be within the rosencrantz and guildenstern act 1, same stimulus as well. Essay. The appropriate superlatives (depending on the visuals) are highest and lowest. The Portuguese. e.g. The lowest prize money went to the best actor for both schools at RM400-00 each in 2012. B. Write a statement by making links (L) between the given stimuli (between visuals) e.g.

The almost double growth in The Heart, the number of secondary school participants in all states in and guildenstern act 1, 2013 was probably due (L) to the increase in prize money from 2012 to 2013. Rephrase the overview or the general trend. Tip: Use an opposite Essay, voice i.e passive or active voice statement when rephrasing the overview. e.g To conclude, the prize money in 2013 influenced the increase of the number of participants in secondary schools for military contractors year 2012 and 2013. OR, simply rephrase by using other linking word when linking the ideas. e.g In conclusion, the increase in prize money from 2012 to 2013 has an effect on Essay, the number of participants in Essay Cell Research Be Cut?, secondary schools in The Heart, 2013. Effect. Below are the sample answer for MUET report writing. Drama Competition Prizes and the Number of Participants in Secondary Schools.

The visuals demonstrate the Drama Competition Prizes and the Number of The Heart Participants for Secondary Schools in 2012 and Essay Shoulc Research Be Cut? 2013. The Heart Essay. The increase in number of participants for secondary schools from 2012 to 2013 was influenced by Shoulc Cell the increase in the prize money for the secondary schools Drama Competition 2013. The 1st prize money was recorded the highest in 2012 for primary and secondary school at Essay RM2500-00 and RM3000-00 and in 2013, it showed a similar trend. Nevertheless, the best actor recorded the lowest prize money in the portuguese, 2012 for Essay primary and secondary school each at RM400-00. For the overall best drama, the prize money increased twofold from RM1300-00 to Essay Conditions Associated C, RM2600-00 and from RM1800-00 to RM3600-00 between 2012 to 2013 respectively. While Perak recorded the most participants in 2012 and 2013 with 29 and 54 respectively, Kedah charted the least with 11 and 22 participants each in same years.

Lastly, the third prize for primary school remained unchanged at RM1,000-00 but there was an increase of RM1,000-00 from RM2,000-00 to RM3,000-00 for secondary school over the past two years. To conclude, the prize money in 2013 might have influenced the increase of the number of participants in secondary schools for year 2012 and 2013. Looking for MUET report writing exercise book? Well, I believe that everyone has his or her on way to The Heart, achieve what they want. I hope by providing the above posting would actually give a heads up for the coming MUET examination. The above posting was adapted and modified from the book below. Most (not all because I have my own share of the fame as well) of the credits and recognition belong to the original authors.

The book is suitable for MUET candidates who cater for more examples activities and to order the book, please contact the author via email at weekseng@gmail.com or visit his website, weekokseng.com. On Common Hepatitis. *FIN* huh..ada gak macam ni ye. haha. mohd ezuddin says. Yang #8220;macam ni#8221; tu yang macam mana? Adakah kerana cheat sheet? Hahaha.. Spot on The Heart Essay, with this write-up, I seriously feel this. website needs a great deal more attention. I#8217;ll probably be returning to. see more, thanks for a boy novel the advice! Dude#8230; x sangka ko post cara2 nak jawab MUET Short Report Writing kat blog ko. Apa kata ko masukkan jugak cara2 nak jawab Extended Writing, especially Argumentative Essay? Bebudak yg amik MUET aku rasa ramai gak yg hadapi problem nak achieve good score#8230; Lebih2 lagi #8216;maturity level#8217; diorang. Pepehal pon kita jumpa lepas cuti Aidilfitri kat opis#8230; MUAHAHAHAHA.

OMG. Essay. you will receive tons of pahala coz of your accurate and simple explanation. Catalyst On Rate. Keep it up! Teacher, for this kind of The Heart Essay essay, how many paragraphs should we write. And does the tittle will be counted. Private Military Contractors Uk. tq#8230; Hi, salam.. 4 or 5 paragraphs will do. One paragraph for The Heart Essay each - intro, overview, analysis/ synthesis and closing. About. (Depends on your style of writing too.)

For the title, normally, it isn#8217;t counted. So how about 3 paragraph ? Ok ka tu ? And sy still tak dpt catch analyse dgn synthesis ni.

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Eavan Boland Boland, Eavan (Poetry Criticism) - Essay. (Full name Eavan Aisling Boland) Irish poet and The Heart critic. Boland is viewed as one of the most important poets in contemporary Irish literature. Critics commend her exploration of feminist issues in her work, particularly the role of rosencrantz and guildenstern act 1 women in Irish literature and society. In her poetry she has also subverted traditional Irish mythology and concepts of female identity in order to express a more accurate perspective on The Heart the contributions and Essay on Common Conditions with achievements of women in Irish history, politics, and culture. Boland was born on The Heart Essay September 24, 1944, in Dublin.

Her father, the a boy, Irish diplomat Frederick H. The Heart Essay! Boland, was posted in 1950 as the Irish Ambassador to the Court of St. James in London, and then in 1956 as the President of the United Nations General Assembly. Growing up in London and a boy novel New York City, Boland felt alienated from her Irish heritage, particularly in London, where she encountered prejudice against the Irish. As a teenager she returned to Ireland and attended the The Heart, Holy Child Convent in Killiny, County Dublin. She immersed herself in Essay Conditions Hepatitis C Irish culture and began to write poetry. The Heart Essay! In 1962 she attended Trinity College in Dublin and published her first collection of verse, 23 Poems. In 1966 she received degrees in English and Latin from Trinity and was hired by the English department as a lecturer. In a short time, however, she left Trinity and became a full-time literary critic and poet. Much of her early poetry focused on private contractors domestic concerns, such as marriage, children, and her home in a suburb of Dublin.

Yet with the publication of In Her Own Image (1980), critics began to take notice of her exploration of feminist issues, particularly the role of The Heart female poets within the patriarchal literary establishment in Ireland. Her work generated much controversy and brought her international recognition as a feminist literary figure. She has taught at several universities, including University College, Dublin; Bowdoin College; the sonnets the portuguese, University of Utah; and The Heart Stanford University. In addition, she has received several awards for her work, such as the catalyst effect of reaction, Lannan Award for Poetry in 1994, the Bucknell Medal of Merit in 2000, and the Frederick Nims Memorial Prize in 2002. Boland's early poems were conventional in style, centered on a celebration of domestic issues such as marriage and children, and were heavily influenced by the work of William Butler Yeats. Yet even at this early stage she demonstrated a recurring interest in The Heart Essay the role of women in Irish literature and society, which later became a central thematic concern of her poetry and essays.

In In Her Own Image, Boland explores such topics as domestic abuse, anorexia, breast cancer, and infanticide. On Rate! She also addresses the lack of real women in Irish myths and national history and announces her suspicion of the male literary tradition and its portrayal of women. Night Feed (1982) considers the concept of female identity through an examination of ordinary women as well as female figures who have been marginalized in Irish mythology. Through these depictions of regular women, she celebrates the complexity of women's lives. In Outside History (1990) she continues her exploration of female identity, and The Heart Essay strives to uncover the silence of generations of women whose lives and contributions to history and culture have been largely ignored. For example, “The Achill Woman” portrays Boland's encounter, during a stay in Achill, with an Essay Stem Cell Research old woman, who discusses of the Irish Famine and the people's struggle to survive such difficult times. The poet relates this woman's story to her own life and realizes her own failure in recognizing the The Heart Essay, importance of this woman's voice and her own connection to women throughout Irish history. In these collections, Boland also rejects the notion that women who live in suburbia and raise families are unworthy of attention. Her poetry celebrates the beauty in contractors uk these lives and the importance of Essay family, marriage, and military contractors domestic responsibilities. The Lost Land (1998) returns to the dynamics of family, as Boland reflects on her children growing up and leaving home and the ways in which this process affects her sense of identity. In Against Love Poetry (2001), Boland once again finds value and beauty in everyday existence and explores the tension between marriage and independence.

Boland has emerged as one of the most important female voices in Irish poetry. Feminist critics have applauded her attempts to locate herself within the Irish poetic tradition by Essay rejecting and reexamining the sonnets from the portuguese, limited, traditional role of women in Irish mythology and history. By subverting these myths and history, they contend, she succeeds in repossessing her identity as an Irish woman and poet. In a broader sense, critics maintain, Boland's poetic development reflects the dramatic political and cultural shifts in Ireland in the past several decades. Commentators have noted the Essay, exploration of such controversial themes as child abuse, violence against women, self-esteem, and eating disorders in her verse. She also touches on issues of alienation, assimilation, identification, and exile.

Critics praise her painterly consciousness, poignant lyrics, keen sense of private military poetic ethics, and use of the concrete to reveal hidden stories in Irish histories. A few critics caution against a strict feminist reading of her poems, contending that this minimizes her work and her contribution to modern poetry. Others have derided her verse as strident and accuse her of mythologizing the domestic sphere and the suburban life. Yeats and The Heart Essay Adrienne Rich are regarded as profound influences on Boland's poetry, and commentators have found affinities between the catalyst effect of reaction, poetry of Boland and Seamus Heaney. Access our Eavan Boland Study Guide for Free. New Territory 1967. In Her Own Image 1980. The War Horse 1980. Introducing Eavan Boland 1981. The Journey 1983. Selected Poems 1990.

Outside History: Selected Poems, 1980-90 1990. In a Time of Violence 1994. Collected Poems 1995. An Origin Like Water: Collected Poems, 1967-1987 1996. Anna Liffey 1997. The Lost Land 1998. Against Love Poetry 2001. Journey with Two Maps: An Anthology 2002. Three Irish Poets, An Anthology: Eavan Boland, Paula Meehan, Mary O'Malley [edited by Boland] 2003. W. B. Yeats and His World [with Michael MacLiammoir] (nonfiction) 1970.

A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in National Tradition (nonfiction) 1989. Object Lessons: The Life of the Woman and Essay the Poet in Our Time (nonfiction) 1995. Patricia L. Hagen and Thomas W. About A Boy Novel! Zelman (essay date winter 1991) SOURCE: Hagen, Patricia L., and Thomas W. Essay! Zelman. “‘We Were Never on Essay Cell Research Be Cut? the Scene of the Crime’: Eavan Boland's Repossession of History.” Twentieth Century Literature 37, no. 4 (winter 1991): 442-53. [ In the following essay, Hagen and Zelman assert that Boland aims to “repossess” her place within the The Heart, Irish literary tradition. Sonnets The Portuguese! ] From Yeats and the Celtic Revival onward, Irish poets have recorded, shaped, and criticized their nation's emerging independent identity. In the process, of course, they also attempted to reforge links to The Heart Essay the past by creating for Ireland a literary tradition incorporating the myths, folklore, and symbols of a long-suppressed Gaelic heritage. Now, at the end of the twentieth century, the sonnets the portuguese, literary tradition wished into existence by Yeats has been expanded, modified, complicated, and virtually completed: it has become, so the argument goes, a “given” in Irish literature, a dead issue.

Thus in Modern Irish Poetry, Robert Garratt “assumes a change among a younger generation of writers in their attitude toward tradition” (5). For today's poets, Garratt argues, the “need to The Heart Essay create and act 1 establish a tradition in literature no longer appears foremost in their thoughts” (5); contemporary poets no longer feel compelled to The Heart write the “definitions” and “apologetics” that so obsessed their poetic forefathers. Although Garratt does not use the word, forefathers is by implication a key concept in his formulation; the tradition Garratt traces (“from Yeats to Heaney”) is exclusively male. For women, who until recently have appeared only as subjects and catalyst objects of poems, not as their authors, the matter of tradition carries considerably more urgency than it does for their male counterparts. Indeed, just as the early Revivalists sought reconnection with a Gaelic heritage suppressed by centuries of English domination, so Irish women poets seek reconnection with a female heritage suppressed by centuries of The Heart male domination. Private Military! Eavan Boland, a major figure in the current generation of Irish poets, is vitally concerned with the The Heart Essay, “ethics” underlying the Irish poetic tradition, most notably the ethical choices involved in a writer's selection of themes worth exploring in poetry, for these themes will naturally reveal the Essay on Common Conditions Associated Hepatitis, writer's—and, collectively, the tradition's—ability to bear witness to The Heart Essay the truth of experience. As a poet and a critic, Eavan Boland displays a painterly consciousness, a keen, painful awareness of the shaping power of Essay on Common Conditions Associated with C language, and a fundamental sense of poetic ethics, three strands that merge into a vital concern with the artistic image and its relationship to truth. Art—poetry, painting, history—outlasts human lives; its images offer us a sense of the past which allows us to view and The Heart situate ourselves, individually and collectively, as heirs to tradition.

As Boland notes, “we ourselves are constructed by our constructs” ( Kind of Scar 20). Given the relation between image and selfhood, the poet—especially the woman poet—has an ethical obligation to de- and re-construct those constructs that shape literary tradition, bearing witness to the truths of experience suppressed, simplified, falsified by the “official” record. In their broad strokes these issues are not, of Essay Shoulc Research Be Cut? course, uniquely Irish; as Boland acknowledges, “poetic ethics are evident and urgent in any culture where tensions between a poet and her or his birthplace are inherited and established” ( Kind of Scar 7)—a view suggesting the difficulty women poets encounter as they approach a sanctioned national myth. Nevertheless, it is within the Irish poetic tradition that, by Essay both birth and choice, Eavan Boland locates herself. Contractors Uk! Indeed, because of The Heart her upbringing, as she describes in “Irish Childhood in about novel England,” issues of Essay assimilation and estrangement, identification and exile—issues themselves central to on rate of reaction an Irish tradition in literature—became significant for her at Essay an early age.

She arrived in effect of reaction England, a “freckled six year old” For this child in exile, “filled with some malaise / of love for what [she'd] never known [she] had” (50), educated in English schools, the songs and poems of her birth-country—the Irish poetic tradition—in many ways created Ireland for her. “Fond Memory” ( Journey 52) juxtaposes her early sense of identification with the Ireland of song and poem against her adult sense of estrangement from that construction. Evoking her disturbingly peaceful childhood in postwar England, one in Essay which she “wore darned worsted” and. Boland moves from her primary-school experience in the first half of the poem to her home in the second, where her father plays the “slow / lilts of Tom Moore” at effect on rate the piano. The Heart Essay! She is affected strongly by the music and. As an adult, she rejects the the portuguese, “safe inventory of The Heart Essay pain,” with its manifold falsifications and Research simplifications, but nonetheless retains a fundamental sense of Essay identity as an private military contractors Irish poet. “I didn't know what to hold, to keep” ( Journey 50), the speaker claims in “An Irish Childhood in England: 1951.” “On the one hand,” Boland writes, “I knew that as a poet, I could not easily do without the The Heart, idea of a nation. Rosencrantz Act 1! … On the other, I could not as a woman accept the nation formulated for me by The Heart Essay Irish poetry and its traditions” ( Kind of Scar 8). The only a boy novel, reconciliation possible for her was to “repossess” that tradition. Essay! By affirming herself as an a boy novel Irish poet, and thus rejecting the common notion that women's poetry should be quarantined from mainstream literature, Boland is in essence claiming her birthright, her say in that tradition, her right to “establish a discourse with the idea of Essay a nation” ( Kind of Scar 20). As Boland cautions, such “repossession” is neither a single nor a static act, but a fluid process of de- and re-construction. It is as if she has been presented with a seemingly completed jigsaw puzzle, but herself holds a series of additional pieces. About A Boy! In defiance of those who suggest she create a nice border around the original, Boland would break apart the completed picture and The Heart reconstruct a new image.

In this model, the first part of the a boy novel, tradition to be shattered must be its alienating “fusion of the national and Essay the feminine which seemed to about simplify both” ( Kind of Scar 7). Instead of real lives, the tradition offers Dark Rosaleen, the The Heart Essay, Old Woman of the Roads, and Cathleen Ni Houlihan, images that by their mythic and ornamental nature necessarily reduce the complex feelings, aspirations, and lives of rosencrantz real women—but not only of women. Boland views these emblematic women, “passive projection[s] of a national idea” ( Kind of Scar 13), as “an underlying fault in Irish poetry; almost a geological weakness” because “all good poetry depends on an ethical relation between imagination and image. Images are not ornaments; they are truths” ( Kind of Scar 23). By recasting a defeated nation into a triumphant woman, the Irish literary tradition may have gained aesthetically, but it lost ethically: gone were the “human truths of survival and The Heart humiliation” and in their place were the “hollow victories … the rhyming queens” ( Kind of about a boy novel Scar 13). Boland's poems, then, attempt to unseat the rhyming queens and reinscribe the human truths they have suppressed, to The Heart Essay “repossess” those portions of history ignored by the Irish canon and to reassess the truth of the national identity. Military Contractors! In this task, her starting point is frequently the driving of a wedge into the “almost geological weakness” of the Irish poetic tradition. In its simplest terms, the resulting division is the The Heart Essay, distance between male and female—the split, in Boland's terms, between “hearth and history,” her hearth and his story.

Her world, if seen at all, is confined to the margins of his story, the celebration of the grand sweep of Irish heroism. As Boland notes, while the rosencrantz and guildenstern, nation's “flags and battle-cries, even its poetry” at times use feminine imagery, “the true voice and vision of The Heart women are routinely excluded” ( Kind of Scar 19). “It's our alibi / for all time,” she writes in Essay Shoulc Stem Research Be Cut? “It's a Woman's World,” “that as far as history goes / we were never / on the scene of the crime” (357). In the official records—the history books, battle-cries, songs, and Essay poems—women exist largely as lamenting voices, mouthpieces, ornaments: the Young Queen, the Old Mother, the Poor Old Woman. “So when the king's head / gored its basket,” the speaker notes, “we were gristing bread” “Like most historic peoples,” women are “defined / by what we forget, by what we never will be: / star-gazers, / fire-eaters” (357). The unsensational and therefore unwritten sufferings of ordinary women, ordinary people, are doomed to with Hepatitis become unhistory: “And still no page / scores the low music / of our outrage” (358). Within his story, gristing bread is Essay, of no consequence, despite its overwhelming importance in sustaining life; her hearth (a precondition of the “heroics” celebrated by his story ), trivialized into recipes and gossip, is.

(The entire section is 4041 words.) Get Free Access to this Eavan Boland Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.

Download our handy iOS app for free. Anne Stevenson (essay date January-February 1992) SOURCE: Stevenson, Anne. “Inside and Outside History.” P.N. Review 18, no. 3 (January-February 1992): 34-5. [ In the following essay, Stevenson regards Boland's encounter with the Achill woman, chronicled in her verse and her essay “Outside History,” as an important moment in her life and work. ] As will be evident to anyone who has followed Eavan Boland's purgatorial journey into self-placement, the story of her meeting with the Achill woman occurs at least twice in her published work: once in the verse sequence of Outside History (Carcanet, 1990), and again as a prologue to her essay of the same title ( P.N.R. 75). Boland, then a student at Trinity. (The entire section is Stem, 1552 words.)

Get Free Access to this Eavan Boland Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Weekes, Ann Owens. “‘An Origin like Water’: The Poetry of The Heart Essay Eavan Boland and Modernist Critiques of Irish Literature.” Bucknell Review 38, no. 1 (1994): 159-76. [ In the private uk, following essay, Weekes applies Richard Kearney's theory about the connection between Irish Revivalism and modernism to Boland's poetry. ] In his excellent study, Transitions (1988), Richard Kearney explores the tensions between Revivalism and modernism in The Heart twentieth-century Irish narratives. Sonnets! Revivalism is associated with Yeats's attempt to present a unity of culture by privileging “primordial images of ancient Celtic mythology which predated all subsequent historical divisions into. (The entire section is 6463 words.) Debrah Raschke (essay date June 1996) SOURCE: Raschke, Debrah. “Eavan Boland's Outside History and In a Time of Violence : Rescuing Women, the Concrete, and Other Things Physical from the Dung Heap.” Colby Quarterly 32, no. 2 (June 1996): 135-42. [ In the following essay, Raschke asserts that “Boland's Outside History and In a Time of Violence use the concrete, physical world to revise notions of what sustains, to query historiography, and to expose the dangers of The Heart mythology.” ] Eavan Boland's poetry has been described as “impeccably scornful,” as “denunciatory,” as too “strident” and too “vehement” (Henigan 110), and as justification for “her dangerous.

(The entire section is 3725 words.) Rose Atfield (essay date spring 1997) SOURCE: Atfield, Rose. “Postcolonialism in the Poetry and Essays of Eavan Boland.” Women: A Cultural Review 8, no. 2 (spring 1997): 168-82. [ In the from the portuguese, following essay, Atfield considers the issue of postcolonialism in Boland's verse. The Heart! ] Postcolonialism in the poetry of Eavan Boland is a process of the recognition and exposure of private military contractors colonialism: its denial and The Heart repression of identity, and sonnets the restoration and reconstruction of that identity in terms of place, history and literary tradition. Boland established a sense of dual postcolonialism when, in the Ronald Duncan lecture for The Heart Essay, the Poetry Book Society, she referred to ‘two identities’ which ‘shape and reshape what I. (The entire section is 5299 words.) Nell Sullivan (essay date December 1997)

SOURCE: Sullivan, Nell. “Righting Irish Poetry: Eavan Boland's Revisionary Struggle.” Colby Quarterly 23, no. 4 (December 1997): 334-48. [ In the following essay, Sullivan perceives Boland's “revisionary struggle” with Irish mythology, which depicts women in subordinate and passive roles as an attempt to “repossess” Irish poetry for women. ] Traditionally, the envoi sends the poet's work out into the world with modest hopes, anxious disclaimers, and humble apologies. But in her poem “Envoi” from Outside. (The entire section is 6762 words.)

David C. Effect Of Reaction! Ward (review date January-February 1999) SOURCE: Ward, David C. “A Certain Slant of Essay Light.” P.N. About A Boy! Review 25, no. 3 (January-February 1999): 66-8. [ In the following review, Ward considers the place of The Lost Land within Boland's poetic oeuvre and The Heart deems the collection to be Boland's return to political concerns. ] ‘My passport is green,’ was Seamus Heaney's defiant assertion of his poetic patrimony. Rosencrantz And Guildenstern Act 1! Heaney's confident nationalism has never been shared by his compatriot Eavan Boland. Boland's poetic career began conventionally enough with her writing nicey-nice lyric poems about Ireland; in one she describes Yeats as the ‘sum’ of all she could learn. But writing poems called ‘Elegy for The Heart Essay, a. (The entire section is 1599 words.) Kate Daniels (essay date spring 1999) SOURCE: Daniels, Kate. “Ireland's Best.” Southern Review 35, no.

2 (spring 1999): 387-93. [ In the following excerpt, Daniels finds similarities between the Stem, poetry of Boland and Medbh McGuckian and differentiates the Essay, poetry of catalyst effect of reaction The Lost Land from Boland's earlier poetic work. ] If one were to compose a scale of oppositions upon which to consider contemporary poetry by Irish women, the Dublin poet Eavan Boland (b. 1944) would appear at one end, and Essay Medbh McGuckian (b. 1951), from Belfast, at the other. Although their work is fundamentally different—Boland the mistress of a highly cadenced, formalistic verse that favors “a lyric speech, a civil tone” (to.

(The entire section is 2227 words.) Albert Gelpi (essay date December 1999) SOURCE: Gelpi, Albert. “‘Hazard and Death’: The Poetry of Eavan Boland.” Colby Quarterly 35, no. 4 (December 1999): 210-28. [ In the on Common, following essay, Gelpi investigates the influence of the American poet Adrienne Rich on The Heart Boland's poetry. ] Eavan Boland's growing international reputation is grounded in the recognition that she is the first great woman poet in the history of Irish poetry. Her success is private contractors uk, yet another validation of William Carlos Williams' observation that the local is the universal.

That very American conviction, which runs from Thoreau through Whitman and Dickinson to Frost and Robinson Jeffers on to Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop and Denise. (The entire section is 8247 words.) Michael Thurston (essay date December 1999) SOURCE: Thurston, Michael. “‘A Deliberate Collection of Essay Cross Purposes’: Eavan Boland's Poetic Sequences.” Colby Quarterly 35, no. 4 (December 1999): 229-51. [ In the following essay, Thurston offers a thematic and stylistic examination of Boland's longer poetic works. Military Contractors Uk! ] Beginning in the early 1980s, Eavan Boland began to work not only in individual lyrics but in slightly longer poems (“The Journey”) and sequences of The Heart Essay lyrics (including the poems gathered in In Her Own Image ). Indeed, since the 1990 American appearance of Outside History: Selected Poems 1980-1990, each of Boland's books has included at least one such sequence ( Outside. (The entire section is 11403 words.) Catriona Clutterbuck (essay date December 1999)

SOURCE: Clutterbuck, Catriona. “Irish Critical Responses to Self-Representation in Eavan Boland.” Colby Quarterly 35, no. 4 (December 1999): 275-87. [ In the following essay, Clutterbuck addresses the effect, critical reaction to issues of feminism and nationalism in Boland's verse. ] This article examines Irish critical responses to a central issue in Eavan Boland's work, responses which were published during eight years of vital development, not only in her own aesthetic, but in her reputation as an artist and in the wider position of Essay women in Irish cultural and political life. In 1987, the results of abortion and novel divorce referenda in Essay the Republic had consolidated. (The entire section is 6580 words.) Jacqueline Belanger (essay date September 2000) SOURCE: Belanger, Jacqueline. “‘The Laws of Metaphor’: Reading Eavan Boland's ‘Anorexic’ in an Irish Context.” Colby Quarterly 36, no. 3 (September 2000): 242-51. [ In the following essay, Belanger maintains that Boland's poem “Anorexic” “best illustrates her attempts to reinsert excluded realities of female experience into an Irish poetic tradition and to explore the implications of the allegorisation of nation as woman.” ] In her 1989 pamphlet, A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in a National Tradition, Dublin poet Eavan Boland describes her search for a way to locate herself in an Irish poetic tradition and for ways to render her experiences of. (The entire section is 4623 words.)

Paul Keen (essay date September 2000) SOURCE: Keen, Paul. “The Doubled Edge: Identity and catalyst effect of reaction Alterity in the Poetry of Eavan Boland and Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill.” Mosaic 33, no. Essay! 3 (September 2000): 19-34. [ In the following essay, Keen places the poetry of private military contractors Boland and Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill in relation to their writings on gender, nationalism, and history. ] In November 1994, the Irish government collapsed. Its disintegration was all the more dramatic because the Taoiseach, Albert Reynolds, was enjoying unprecedented popularity for his role in brokering an IRA cease-fire and The Heart securing the prospect of peace negotiations. Within weeks he had resigned in disgrace over his promotion of about a boy Harry Whelehan to The Heart president of. (The entire section is 6383 words.)

SOURCE: Conboy, Katie. “Revisionist Cartography: The Politics of Place in Boland and Heaney.” In Border Crossings: Irish Women Writers and National Identities, edited by Shoulc Stem Cell Research Kathryn Kirkpatrick, pp. 190-203. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2000. [ In the following essay, Conboy investigates the The Heart Essay, connection between poet and place in the work of Boland and Seamus Heaney. ] (The entire section is 4902 words.) Anne Shifrer (essay date December 2001)

SOURCE: Shifrer, Anne. Catalyst On Rate! “The Fabrics and The Heart Erotics of Eavan Boland's Poetry.” Colby Quarterly 37, no. 4 (December 2001): 309-42. [ In the following essay, Shifrer examines the role of sonnets from fabrics in Essay Boland's poetry. ] By focusing on the role of novel fabrics in Eavan Boland's poetry, I hope to provide readers with a better key to reading Boland's domestic world, one which reveals her demolition of the aesthetic—and its aftermath, in The Heart which Boland recuperates the aesthetic for feminine pleasure. There's a logic, I believe, in reading Boland's poems, at first, autoerotically, reveling in of reaction the fabrics, the flowers, the colors of twilight. In moving to a deeper understanding, we then. (The entire section is 6794 words.) Richard Rankin Russell (essay date winter 2002) SOURCE: Russell, Richard Rankin. “Boland's ‘Lava Cameo.’” The Explicator 60, no. The Heart Essay! 2 (winter 2002): 114-17. [ In the following essay, Russell argues that a close reading of Boland's “Lava Cameo” “illustrates how its subject, tone, sentence structure, and diction enable Boland to imagine this scene, sympathetically write herself into it, and establish a new relationship with her grandparents and military uk her own personal history.” ] Eavan Boland's 1995 volume of poetry, In a Time of The Heart Essay Violence, explores her imaginative re-creations of rosencrantz history. The middle section of that volume, “Legends,” contains a remarkable poem entitled “Lava Cameo,” which depicts a. (The entire section is The Heart Essay, 1367 words.)

Burns, Christy. Essay On Common Conditions Hepatitis C! “Beautiful Labors: Lyricism and Feminist Revisions in Eavan Boland's Poetry.” Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 20, no. 2 (fall 2001): 217-36. Explores “the tension in Boland's work between her political investment in representing women—especially the The Heart, laboring poor—and her attraction to contractors beautiful images and seductive, lyrical language.” Consalvo, Deborah McWilliams. “In Common Usage: Eavan Boland's Poetic Voice.” Eire-Ireland 28, no. 2 (summer 1993): 98-115.

Examines the range of Boland's craft as a poet and assesses her poetic contribution.