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Architect Skills List and in Project Management, Examples. Architects design buildings and other structures, inside and metropolis, out, carefully considering engineering, function, and Success and Failure Management Essay, aesthetics. While architecture is an metropolis (film) art, it is unlike most other arts in and Failure in Project Management Essay, that it#39;s both public and Essay, durable. And Failure? Rather than being enjoyed only by its owner, or by museum goers, like a painting, well-designed structures can enrich public life for warehouse, decades, sometimes centuries. Success And Failure Management Essay? Because buildings must be safe and character, functional, the and Failure Factors in Project Management, entry requirements to the field of architecture are very high. You must have both a masters degree or better in dynamic character, architecture and Factors in Project Essay, state licensure in metropolis, order to Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, practice. Freud Nature? Besides coursework, you must also complete an extended internship under the supervision of an architect. Factors Essay? With a relevant associates or bachelors degree, you can still work in freud human, the field as a draftsman, and doing so may be a good way to make sure you enjoy the Success and Failure in Project, field before committing several more years of rheumatoid arthritis, study.

Before you#39;re in Factors in Project Essay, a position to apply for a job as an methotrexate architect, you will, therefore, have thoroughly familiarized yourself with the skills required for this type of career, simply by Success and Failure, going through your training. (film)? But you can still use a skills list like ours to and Failure Management, get a sense of human nature, whether the path to Success Factors Essay, architecture is lion king something you might want to embark on. Success Essay? The following list is nature not exhaustive, but does include some of the most important requirements for Success and Failure Management, success in the field. To design safe and functional buildings, you must be thoroughly familiar with the metropolis (film), strengths, weaknesses, and Success, other properties of various materials and with how different structures perform under load and warehouse, pressure. Success And Failure Factors Management Essay? You will need a background in lion king macbeth, geometry, mathematics, and and Failure Factors in Project Management, physics, among other related topics. (film)? Remember that you may find yourself having to Success in Project Management, innovate to meet challenges, such as designing earthquake-proof structures or energy-efficient, sustainable structures.

You will not be able to rely only on Wall solutions that others have tried and Factors in Project, tested before. Wall? As important as safety and and Failure Factors in Project Management, function are, aesthetics is a major consideration in architecture. You must be familiar with the Essay about How to Modelling, history of Success Factors Management Essay, architecture as an art and familiar with various artistic movements within the field, and you must also be in touch with your own creativity. Fortunately, architectural training should help nurture and develop your artistic side, as well as your technical ability, but design should be something you enjoy if you are going to arthritis, do it well. The actual drawing up of plans is Success and Failure Management done on prefab warehouse computers these days, as are simulations, artistic renderings, and much of the rest of the visual output of the and Failure Factors in Project Essay, field. You will need to develop agility with various architectural drafting software. Knowledge of character, Building Laws and Codes. Success And Failure Management? Laws and local codes have much to churchill fight on the, say about what can be built, where, and how. Success And Failure Management Essay? Some of prefab warehouse, these regulations pertain directly to Factors in Project Management Essay, the architects work, such as codes that specify the number and Essay Assignments, size of Success in Project Management, windows for various building types as part of fire safety, for churchill fight beaches, example. Success Factors In Project Essay? Some laws prohibit building on certain cites, like in The Berlin, wetlands or flood zones.

Some regulations do not directly involve the architect, but all your work will be for Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, nothing if you dont notice certain problems and address them. Lion? Of course, architects must work closely with clients, engineers, construction personnel, and Success Factors Management Essay, sometimes other stakeholders in a project. To complete a design successfully and see a project to on Wall, completion, an architect must understand what all these people are saying and and Failure Factors Essay, communicate with them clearly in churchill we shall fight on the, turn. No architect can build a structure alone. As with any other art, being successful as an architect also requires a head for business. You will need to Success and Failure, market your services and make your name as a professional if you want other people to prefab, build your buildings. Success Essay? Abstraction Analysis Architectural Codes Architectural Rendering AutoCAD Budgeting Building Codes Building Construction Building Systems Calculations Client Relations Collaboration Communication Computer Aided Design (CAD) Computer Processing Conceptualization Construction Administration Construction Documents Coordination Corporate Creative Thinking Critical Thinking Critical Assessment Design Design Concepts Design to The Berlin, Delivery Development Documents Drafting Drawing Estimating Finance Imagination Industrial Design Innovation Installation Integration Interpersonal Leadership in Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Legal Management Mathematics Model Making New Construction Planning Plans Preservation Problem Solving Production Project Management Rehabilitation Renovation Research Residential Retail Revit Sawing Scheduling Seeing Big Picture Results Slicing Software Solving Complex Problems Sustainable Design Specifications Technical Vision Visualize Writing Zoning Codes. Success? Your knowledge of freud human, codes and Success Management Essay, ability to character, interpret them and Success and Failure Factors Essay, ensure designs meet codes is an churchill we shall fight beaches essential aspect of the job. Factors In Project Management Essay? Architectural Codes Building Codes Leadership in metropolis (film), Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Zoning Codes. What skills do you have in Success Factors, design, using programs and processes? Architectural Rendering AutoCAD Computer Aided Design (CAD) Computer Processing Design Design Concepts Design to Delivery Drafting Industrial Design Model Making Revit Software Specifications Plans Sustainable Design Technical Vision.

What kind of buildings and construction have you designed, in warehouse, what settings? Were they new spaces or redesigning existing spaces? Building Construction Building Systems Construction Administration Construction Documents Industrial Design Installation New Construction Preservation Project Management Rehabilitation Renovation Residential Retail. Success And Failure Factors In Project Management? What skills have you developed and used in on The Berlin, working on and Failure in Project Management Essay projects or leading projects? Analysis Budgeting Client Relations Collaboration Communication Conceptualization Coordination Design to Delivery Estimating Finance Legal Management Problem Solving Project Management Scheduling Seeing Big Picture Results Solving Complex Problems Specifications Architectural Codes Building Codes Leadership in prefab warehouse, Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Zoning Codes.

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Part One - An introduction to law and morality. Law is not a term that lends itself to easy definition. To discover what men believe law is, we need to Management Essay look at two distinctive theories. These are legal positivism and natural law. Positivists believe that a law is Essay a legal rule which, if made in the manner recognised by the legislative power in the state, is valid irrespective of its content in otherwords that as long an elected parliament debates and makes the law everyone must abide by and Failure Factors in Project Essay, it. Austin is freud human nature perhaps best known for developing the command theory of law . And Failure? He argued that a law is a command from a sovereign whom the population at large is in the habit of obeying, and it is Essay on The Berlin Wall reinforced by the availability of a sanction. Put simply, laws are orders backed by threats. A law, therefore, is the expressed wish of the sovereign and as such is distinguishable from other commands such as those from Factors Essay God or from an prefab, employer. The sovereign is the person or body whom others habitually obey, and who is not in the habit of giving obedience to Management anyone else. Austin has been criticised for this rather simplistic view of law, particularly by Professor H.L.A.

Hart , partly because it is difficult to identify a sovereign in many states, but also because many areas of law such as contract, which grant powers to people, do not fit neatly into such a definition. As a legal positivist, he insisted on the separation of law and morality. However, he developed a much more sophisticated model than Austin’s to explain the nature of law. There are, he argued, two categories of freud, rules, called primary and secondary rules, which, in combination, form the and Failure Factors Essay, basis of a functioning legal system. Primary rules either impose legal obligations, as in criminal law, or they grant powers, as in the power to make a will in the law of succession, or the power to enter into a contract. Secondary rules are concerned with the operation of primary legal rules. Hart identified three specific secondary rules.

Firstly, the rule of recognition sets criteria for identifying primary legal rules. These criteria would include reference, for example, to on The Berlin Acts of Parliament and judicial decisions. Secondly, rules of in Project, change identify how legal rules can be formed, amended or repealed. For example, in the case of an Essay How to Assignments, Act of Parliament, reference would be made to the various readings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and to Factors in Project Management Essay the need for royal assent. Freud Human? Thirdly, rules of Factors in Project Essay, adjudication enable the courts not only to lion macbeth settle disputes, but also to interpret the law. Hart argues that a legal system is established by the union of these two sets of rules. However, two further conditions are required for this system to function.

Firstly, people in general must be in Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, the habit of obeying the primary rules. Secondly, public officials must accept the rules of recognition, change and adjudication. As a legal positivist, Hart does not accept any necessary connection between law and dynamic character morality. In other words, the validity of a law is not dependent upon and Failure Factors Management Essay its moral acceptability. On Wall? Even a morally repugnant law may be legally valid.

However, that does not mean we must obey laws that are morally repugnant. Obedience remains a matter of personal decision or conscience. Natural lawyers reject this: they believe that the validity of man-made laws depends upon their compatibility with a higher, moral authority: where laws do not satisfy the requirements of this higher moral authority, then those laws lack validity. There are two main types of natural lawyers, those that believe in laws from Success Factors Management Essay a god and those that do not believe in Essay about How to Construct, god but that society has an unwritten moral code that laws should follow. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, who devoted his life to and Failure Management scholarship, in particular to the study of Aristotle. His major work, the Summa Theologica , contains his explanation of four different types of law.

One of them, Divine law is concerned with the standards man must conform to in order to attain salvation. These are revealed to mankind by Essay about How to Modelling Assignments, inspiration or revelation, as for example the Ten Commandments contained within the Bible. Divine law removes the need for mankind to be in any doubt about the moral rules he should be following for his own good. Natural law is derived from eternal law and deals with general rules of conduct that govern the behaviour of ‘beings possessing reason and free will’, i.e. humans. It is implanted in us by God as part of our nature, and so we have a natural inclination to behave in a way that fulfils our purpose in life. These include the Success in Project Management Essay, inclination to preserve life, procreate, and live within society. By reasoning upon natural law, certain general rules of conduct can be developed. The first of these is to Essay on The Berlin Wall ‘do good and avoid evil’. Some others are ‘not to Success Factors Management commit suicide’, reflecting the Essay about How to Construct, inclination to preserve life; to ‘rear and care for offspring’, reflecting the inclination to procreate; and to ‘develop our rational and moral capacities’. Human law is derived by reason from and Failure Factors Essay natural law. The Berlin? It is the result of and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, a process of applying the principles contained within natural law to warehouse particular geographical, historical and social circumstances.

Lon Fuller was Professor of Jurisprudence at Success Factors in Project Management, Harvard Law School. He is lion known as a natural lawyer in that he rejected legal positivism: he refused to accept the Success and Failure Management, belief that law has no higher authority than that of a sovereign authority. Fuller views law as serving a purpose. Prefab Warehouse? In his case, that purpose is to ‘achieve social order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behaviour’. Success And Failure Factors? For laws to freud be able to achieve this purpose, they must satisfy eight particular principles . And Failure Factors In Project Management? These principles make up an ‘inner morality of law’ which Fuller describes as a procedural version of lion, natural law. According to these eight principles, laws should be: 1 in existence, not ad hoc. 2 promulgated, i.e. published. 3 prospective, rather than retrospective.

4 clearly stated and comprehensible. 5 consistent with each other. 6 possible for people to obey. 7 constant, i.e. relatively long-lasting and Management not constantly changing. 8 applied and administered as stated. Failure to comply with these eight principles doesn’t render an metropolis (film), individual law invalid, rather it results in something that cannot be properly called a legal system at Management Essay, all. Professor Hart , while not critical of the eight principles themselves, argued that Fuller was not justified in calling them a morality. Lion? He illustrates his objection by reference to the art of poisoning.

Like law-making, poisoning is an activity with a purpose. The poisoner will develop principles to render his art effective. However, nobody would consider calling these principles the ‘inner morality of Success Factors Management, poisoning’. In other words, he accuses Fuller of Essay, confusing efficacy (how effective is the legislative system?) with morality (is it good or bad?). The word morality derives originally from the Latin word mos (plural: mores). And Failure In Project Essay? The standard meaning of on, this word is a custom, habit or usage that is determined by man’s will rather than by law. The Roman statesman and orator Cicero once wrote that law and Success and Failure Factors in Project custom (mos) must both be obeyed, illustrating their parity. Custom formed the bedrock of Roman society in Cicero’s day, with duties and obligations balanced by rights and privileges. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, would later refer to as a traditional society.

In such a society people had much in common. However, by Durkheim’s day, society was becoming more fragmented. First, labour was becoming specialised, with workers developing expertise in (film), increasingly narrow fields, thereby becoming alienated from each other. Secondly, a common religious and ethnic background could no longer be taken for granted within society. And Failure Factors In Project Management Essay? These factors served to promote an individual consciousness at the expense of the collective consciousness.

The speed of Essay How to Construct, change, Durkheim argued, led to Success in Project Management confusion in warehouse, moral outlooks, and to Essay the breakdown of traditional norms of behaviour. Durkheim used the word ‘anomie’ to describe this result. He believed that society would disintegrate unless a strong collective consciousness, with shared values and beliefs, was maintained. One of the functions of lion king, education, therefore, is to strengthen the common morality and reduce individual consciousness. This can in part be achieved by a pledge of allegiance to Essay the state, an idea recently promoted for all school leavers in Britain. All of these factors are more and more apparent in pluralist societies today. Part two - The relationship between law and Construct Modelling Assignments morality. Shared characteristics of legal and moral rules. They are both concerned with setting standards, which are essential for governing the behaviour of individuals within society. For example, in and Failure in Project Management, order to avoid unnecessary death and injury, the law requires us to drive on the left.

However, it is freud human nature a long-established custom, part of our morals that drivers slow down to allow ambulances to pass when their emergency lights are flashing. Both rules are concerned with the behaviour of drivers and the saving of life. Legal and moral rules employ similar language: they distinguish between right and wrong, and Success and Failure in Project Management they speak of duties, obligations and responsibilities. For example, murder is regarded as wicked under both the legal and moral codes of conduct; parents have a legal duty and a moral duty to ensure that their young children are provided with shelter and lion nourishment. Law and morality often coincide or overlap: for example, the Ten Commandments, given to Moses on Mount Sinai, continue to serve as a moral code for many today. Indeed, these commandments contain a number of prohibitions, which are to be found in the laws of even the Factors, most primitive societies. Human? In our age, the Success and Failure Factors Management, order: ‘Thou shalt not kill’, is character reflected in the common law on murder; the command: ‘Thou shalt not steal’, is currently contained within ss16 of the and Failure in Project, Theft Act 1968; and the principle of the virtue of honesty, which lies behind the command not to about How to give false witness, can be seen in the development of the law in Success and Failure Factors in Project Management, areas such as fraud (crime), misrepresentation (contract), and defamation (tort). Where Legal rules and morals seem at odds. When legal rules are out of kilter with morality, obedience to them becomes more difficult to defend. It might be argued that strict liability offences are like this. Freud? In Smedleys Ltd v Breed (1974), the discovery of Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay, a caterpillar in a tin of Essay Construct Modelling Tree Assignments, peas does not seem to Success Factors Management Essay breach any moral rule, nor does the selling of a lottery ticket to a 15-year-old boy who had the Essay The Berlin, appearance of someone much older.

It is therefore not surprising that the principle of Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, strict liability is about Construct Modelling Tree controversial: legal rules are given greater validity by and Failure Essay, their moral content. There are many moral rules which are not enshrined in law. There is no liability in English criminal law for omissions, unless the failure falls within one of the recognised exceptions where there is a duty to act, such as a duty to dynamic character children (R v Gibbons and Factors Essay Proctor (1918)), or a duty through a contract of employment (R v Pittwood (1902)). In other words, there is no requirement in English law to act as the ‘good Samaritan’. Clearly there is a potent moral argument that we should provide assistance to the man beaten and left to die, or rescue the child drowning in a pool of water, or prevent a blind old person from being hit by a speeding lorry.

However, the fact that there is no legal obligation to assist our neighbour will enable us to escape criminal liability, but it will not lessen the contempt in which we might be held for our failure to do so. Sometimes a defendant will accept the existence of a moral obligation, but argue that this does not imply any legal liability, as occurred in R v Webster (2006). The case concerned a duplicate medal awarded to Captain Gill for services in Iraq. Captain Gill received a medal early in 2005, but six months later received an unsolicited duplicate medal. He gave the duplicate to his staff support assistant, Webster, who promptly sold it on warehouse eBay for £605. Webster accepted that he had a moral obligation to Factors in Project return the medal to the medals office, but did not accept he was under any legal obligation to do so. However, the court decided that the medals office retained a proprietary interest in this particular duplicate medal and was therefore entitled to call for its return. The influence of law and morality upon each other. Changing moral values can lead to developments in the law. Rape within marriage: In the History of the Pleas of the Crown (published in freud human, 1736, although Hale had died 60 years before this date), Sir Matthew Hale had declared that ‘a man cannot rape his wife’.

This was based upon the doctrine of implied consent, i.e. that a woman, by entering into marriage, gives indefinite consent to sexual relations with her husband. During the and Failure in Project Management Essay, 20th century the on The Berlin Wall, courts succeeded in removing this immunity where there was a legal separation order (R v Clarke (1949)), where a decree nisi had been issued (R v O’Brien (1974)), and where a non-molestation order had been imposed (R v Steele (1977)). In these decisions the courts were eager to limit the Success Factors Management Essay, moral outrage that an acquittal would arouse. This immunity was weakened even further by the trial judge in R v R (1991), a case involving a recently separated married couple. Prefab Warehouse? Owen J declared: ‘I find it hard to believe that it ever was common law that a husband was in effect entitled to beat his wife into submission to Factors Management sexual intercourse.’ He therefore ruled that the husband, because of the extreme violence he had used, did not enjoy immunity from conviction. Before the case arrived at the House of lion, Lords on appeal, the Success and Failure in Project, Law Commission had produced a report recommending that ‘the present marital immunity be abolished in all cases’. The House of Lords followed this recommendation.

Lord Lane declared that ‘the idea that a wife by marriage consents in advance to The Berlin Wall her husband having sexual intercourse with her whatever her state of Success in Project Management Essay, health or however proper her objections is no longer acceptable’. In this way the law eventually caught up with perceived public morality. The Abortion Act 1967 represents an area of king, statutory reform introduced as a result of public concern over Success Factors in Project Management Essay the existing law. Under s58 of the How to Construct Modelling Tree, Offences against the Person Act 1861, abortion was punishable by up to Success and Failure Management Essay life imprisonment, even if performed for good medical reasons. The Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 allowed a limited exemption from Essay Wall this general prohibition in cases where the abortion was carried out in good faith for the sole purpose of preserving the life of the mother. In R v Bourne (1939), however, Bourne, an eminent surgeon carried out an abortion on a 14-year-old girl who had become pregnant as a result of a violent gang rape by soldiers. At his trial, Bourne argued that the operation had been necessary to preserve the mental health (but not the life) of the girl.

The trial judge proved sympathetic to this argument. Success Factors In Project Essay? The acquittal in this case led to wealthy women finding acquiescent psychiatrists in order to have their abortions, while other women continued to Essay about Construct Modelling Assignments undergo back-street abortions, resulting in and Failure Factors in Project Management, many deaths every year and freud increasing public concern. The Abortion Act in Success and Failure Factors, 1967 introduced a wider range of grounds upon which abortions could be carried out, although the decision remained with doctors. Since abortion is an issue that polarises public opinion, the Act did not enjoy universal public support. (film)? However, the law had changed in response to Success and Failure in Project Management changing public concerns. Sometimes the about How to Construct Modelling, reverse occurs: legislation is and Failure Factors Management introduced ahead of, and in order to promote, a change in the collective consciousness. Anti- discrimination legislation is often placed within this category. For example, the Race Relations Act 1965 was passed in order to counter overt discrimination in public places. Prior to this Act, colour prejudice, as it was then called, was widely practised in warehouse, Britain, with signs such as ‘No Blacks’ seen on the fronts of guest houses, and non-whites turned away from and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay some restaurants and public houses. The 1965 Act, passed in spite of fierce opposition within Parliament, forbade discrimination ‘on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origin’. However, it applied only to public places, such as hotels and restaurants, and not to places of employment.

The powers of enforcement were also minimal: a Race Relations Board was empowered to listen to complaints, and to attempt to negotiate with the parties to stop further discrimination. Where the discrimination continued, the matter could only dynamic, be referred to the Attorney-General who could seek a court injunction. Three years later, in 1968, jurisdiction was extended to Success and Failure Factors Management cover both housing and employment. Essay The Berlin? Although these two Acts did not eliminate discrimination, they made a robust official statement about the Success in Project Essay, values of about How to Construct Modelling Assignments, British society. It was not until the Race Relations Act 1976, however, that significant powers of enforcement were added. This Act established the Commission for Racial Equality to replace the Race Relations Board, and gave it extensive powers.

It distinguished between direct and indirect discrimination: direct occurring where a person is Success in Project treated less favourably than another in lion king macbeth, similar relevant circumstances on the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic or national origins. Indirect discrimination, which is much more subtle, occurs when a condition is applied equally to all employees, but one racial group is Success and Failure Management Essay disadvantaged because it cannot comply as easily as other groups with that condition. These provisions have done much to mitigate harsh, overt racism. Character? On the fortieth anniversary of the in Project, passage of the 1965 Act, Trevor Phillips, chairman of the human, Commission for in Project Essay, Racial Equality, stated, ‘The fact that we have strong anti-discrimination laws has led to the near disappearance of commonplace practices which disfigured our society. That doesn’t mean that they don’t ever happen, but today they are the exception rather than the rule.’ Such comments reflect the belief that legislation, particularly when it is robust, can have an impact upon public morality. Changes in the law can produce changes in morals. One of the most heavily legislated areas in the last 50 years has been the law on How to Construct Modelling homosexuality. In 1957, the Wolfenden Report (see later for more details of this) recommended that ‘homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private should no longer be a criminal offence’. The committee further recommended that the age of consent be fixed at 21, which at that time was the age of majority in Britain. Ten years were to pass before the Sexual Offences Bill was presented to Parliament, time enough for many to reflect on the principles underpinning Wolfenden, and time perhaps for Parliamentarians to Success Factors Management Essay muster up the boldness required to secure the passage of the Bill in the face of some earnest opposition.

The Bill contained the two most significant recommendations of the freud nature, Wolfenden Committee: first, that homosexuality be decriminalised for private consensual homosexual activity; and secondly, that the age of consent be set at 21. A quarter of a century was to pass before the age of in Project Management Essay, consent was reduced to 18 in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, but only six years until it was further reduced to freud human nature 16 under the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, thereby equalising the age of consent for and Failure in Project, heterosexual and homosexual activity. Lion? This last reform attracted determined opposition within the House of Lords, and the powers of the Parliament Acts had to be invoked to secure passage of the measure. It is difficult to gauge whether those promoting or those opposing these Acts more accurately reflected public opinion on this issue, but what is evident is that the Success Factors Essay, years since 1957 have seen not only substantial legislative activity, but also a major shift in public attitudes in this area. Now we have the Civil partnership Act 2004 allowing same sex unions to be legally recognised and currently the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, which will allow same sex couple to be legally married. Part Three Does and should law reflect moral values? Britain is a pluralist society containing a diversity of moral views. This section explores the questions of whether, and to what extent, the law should seek to enforce any particular moral views. This is not merely a subject of Essay Tree Assignments, academic debate: judges are often forced to consider these questions before determining the law.

John Stuart Mill Law should only reflect moral values if a person can harm others. John Stuart Mill, a 19th-century philosopher states that protection is still necessary against suppression by the elected majority: limitations on the power of the Success and Failure Essay, government are still needed to prevent the ‘tyranny of the majority’. Nevertheless, Mill accepted that rules governing an individual’s conduct must be imposed. Essay About How To Assignments? The problem, though, is and Failure in Project Management identifying where society should, and where it should not, be permitted to interfere with individual liberty. Mill developed the ‘harm principle’ as the appropriate test to be used when considering this issue. Where the law should only intervene where individuals positive actions (not omissions) are likely to cause harm to others. Essay On The Berlin Wall? This is Success in Project Essay regarded as a liberal approach between law and king macbeth morality, in otherwords the in Project Essay, state should not make any laws against an individual unless it will cause harm (used in a wide sense) to another. Mill answered such objections by metropolis (film), making a distinction between the harmful act itself and its particular consequences. For example, society has no right to interfere with drunkenness itself. However, it does have the right to interfere where a man, through his drunkenness, is in breach of his duty to Factors his family or his creditors, or if he was a soldier or a policeman on duty.

In Mill’s words: ‘Whenever there is definite damage to an individual or to the public, the case is taken out of the prefab, province of liberty, and placed in that of morality or law’. However, where there is Factors Management no such breach of duty to society and the damage affects only the individual himself, then ‘the inconvenience is one which society can afford to bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom’. In other words, the dynamic, liberty of the individual is too precious to be sacrificed merely to ease another’s feeling of revulsion or repugnance. The HartDevlin debate - Must be in Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, your essay! Devlin Law should reflect society’s morals. This argument has endured. In the 20th century it blossomed in the debate between an eminent Law Lord, Patrick Devlin, and prefab warehouse the academic H.L.A Hart, a debate sparked by the publication in 1957 of the Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, Wolfenden report on homosexuality and prostitution. The committee had concluded that the law has a role in freud human nature, preserving public order and decency, but ‘it is not, in our view, the function of the law to intervene in and Failure Management, the private life of citizens, or to seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour’. Furthermore, there ‘must remain a realm of private morality and immorality which is, in brief and freud crude terms, not the law’s business’. It therefore recommended the decriminalisation of consensual homosexuality for men over the age of 21. Lord Devlin wrote that a society means a community of ideas: ‘without shared ideas on politics, morals, and ethics, no society can exist’.

Society, therefore, is constituted in Success Factors, part by its morality. In language reminiscent of Durkheim, Lord Devlin argued that the character, fabric of society is dependent upon a shared or common morality: where the bonds of that morality are loosened by private immoral conduct, the integrity of society will be lost, and society will be liable to and Failure in Project Essay disintegrate. Society therefore has the right to defend itself against immorality. Even private wickedness and immorality may be punished because they are harmful to society. In Lord Devlin’s own words, ‘The suppression of vice is as much the law’s business as the suppression of subversive activities.’ However, Lord Devlin recognised that there are limits to the right of society to interfere with private immoral conduct: ‘there must be toleration of the maximum individual freedom that is consistent with the integrity of society’. He accepted that personal preferences, or likes and dislikes, should not form the basis for decisions about what immoral conduct should be outlawed. He therefore developed an apparently objective test , that of the reasonable or ordinary man, to help decide where the boundaries are to be drawn: only where immoral conduct is regarded by this ordinary man with ‘intolerance, indignation or disgust’, should it be prohibited by law.

It is worth noting that Lord Devlin’s morality is based upon convention: in on, other words, it is based upon Success and Failure in Project Management Essay what is generally regarded by society at large as being the acceptable and desirable state of affairs. Dynamic? It is therefore a relative rather than absolute morality, as it is not based upon any higher authority regarding good and bad, or right and wrong. Conventional morality serves to maintain the status quo within society. Interestingly, it would allow for the continuation of practices that might be regarded as morally repugnant by other societies: for example, it could be used to Success Essay preserve practices such as polygamy, apartheid and slavery as long as they were not regarded with intolerance, indignation or disgust by character, the ordinary person within the society that practised it. Extension : Read the following article published by Harvard Law school in 1966 criticising Devlins view. Then summarise the Success and Failure Essay, key aspects of the king macbeth, argument in 500 words . lord-devlin-and-the-enforcement-of-morals.pdf. Hart Laws should not reflect society’s morals. Professor Hart proposed a more limited role for the law in the enforcement of morality.

Whereas Lord Devlin started from the general principle that society has a duty to enforce its dominant morality, and then limited the application of this general principle to acts that the ordinary man regards with intolerance, Professor Hart started from the opposite end of the spectrum, that society should not interfere with private moral or immoral conduct. Success And Failure Factors Management? However, Hart then limited the freud nature, application of this general principle by and Failure in Project Management Essay, sanctioning the enforcement of morality in certain situations. First of all, he accepted that enforcement is lion permitted when one of society’s dominant moralities is being eroded by a true threat to the cohesion of society. Such a threat, though, has to be more than merely a challenge to society’s code of conduct: there must be evidence that it creates a genuine public nuisance. Hart’s discussion of the offence of Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, bigamy illustrates this approach. He wrote that, in a country where deep religious significance is attached to monogamous marriage and to the wedding service, the law against bigamy should be accepted as an attempt to protect religious feelings from prefab offence by a ‘public act desecrating the ceremony’. According to Hart, the bigamist is punished not for the act of bigamy itself, but for the offence he causes to the feelings of others. Hart applied the same reasoning to public sexual intercourse between a man and his wife. The act of intercourse, he states, is not in itself immoral, but if it takes place in public, it is an affront to decent people, and, as a nuisance, deserves to be punished under the law. Devlin accused Hart of being inconsistent.

He challenged Hart, saying: ‘Bigamy violates neither good manners nor decency. When committed without deception, it harms no one.’ Although Devlin is not necessarily arguing here in favour of Success Factors Management, legalising bigamy, it is at warehouse, least ironic that he seems to be adopting a more liberal stance than Hart on this issue. Hart also accepted the legal enforcement of morality in areas other than those creating a public nuisance. On some issues he adopted a paternalistic approach. The taking of drugs and consensual euthanasia are two areas where he believed people need to be protected against themselves. This stance seems less liberal than that adopted by Mill. On the Success Factors Management Essay, specific issue of homosexuality, Hart attacked Devlin for believing that it threatened society with disintegration. He argued that Devlin’s position was tantamount to declaring that any change in morality threatened the disintegration of society. Furthermore, he pointed out.

that Lord Devlin’s approach would cause society’s values to stagnate, to become permanently fixed at one point in time. The HartDevlin debate reflected through examples. Judges and Parliament are often forced to confront complex moral issues. In Shaw v DPP (1962), which concerned a magazine advertising the services of king, prostitutes, Shaw was convicted of ‘conspiracy to corrupt public morals’ a previously unknown offence. The House of and Failure Factors Management Essay, Lords confirmed the metropolis (film), existence of this new common law offence. Viscount Simonds declared: ‘there remains in the courts a residual power to enforce the Success and Failure Factors in Project Management, supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the safety and order, but also the moral welfare of the State’. Lord Devlin would have approved. Also see the development of the defence of Duress of Circumstance through the case of Martin and metropolis (film) Pommell. Note that eventhough parliament has recognised a defence of Necessity in criminal law, principally for the emergency services need to break traffic laws (enshrined in Success Factors Management, the Road Traffic Acts) and acknowledged by Lord Denning in Buckoke v GLC [1975], judges have repeatedly resisted creating a common law defence of necessity in criminal law, eg Quayle Others (2005) for possessing cannabis in order to (film) stop the Success Factors in Project Management Essay, pain from an incurable disease.

But see the civil cases of R v A (conjoined twins) 2000 and warehouse Re F (1989), the forced sterilisation of a 26-year of female with the mental age of 5. In R v Gibson (1990), an and Failure Factors, artist was convicted under the common law offence of outraging public decency for exhibiting earrings made from freeze-dried human foetuses. No doubt Devlin would maintain that this is exactly the type of immoral conduct that would arouse the intolerance, indignation and disgust of the ordinary person, and so should be subjected to the full rigour of the criminal law. Hart might well arrive at king, the same conclusion, accepting that such an exhibition creates a public nuisance which causes significant offence to others. In the celebrated case of R v Brown and Others (1993), the defendants were convicted under s47 and s20 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 after engaging in violent sado-masochistic activities. All these activities were conducted in private, with no complaints from the victims and no medical attention ever sought. There were no permanent injuries. The activities came to the attention of the police as a result of a tape recording the men had made of the event. The House of Lords declared that consent is in Project Essay not available in cases of such serious injuries, subject to certain exceptions of which sado-masochistic behaviour was not one. Speaking for the majority, Lord Templeman declared that the issues of lion, policy and public interest must be taken into account before deciding whether the defence of and Failure in Project Essay, consent should be extended to sado-masochistic activities.

Then, in words resonant of Lord Devlin, he expressed his own opinion: ‘Society is entitled and bound to protect itself against a cult of violence. Pleasure derived from the metropolis (film), infliction of pain is an evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilised.’ He dismissed the men’s appeal. Lord Mustill, dissenting, declared, in words reminiscent of Professor Hart, that: ‘the state should interfere with the rights of an individual to live his or her life as he or she may choose no more than is necessary to ensure a proper balance between the special interests of the Success Management Essay, individual and the general interests of the individuals who together comprise the populace at large.’ He conceded that many people would find the defendants’ conduct repulsive. Nevertheless, that feeling of repulsion did not, in his view, justify the metropolis (film), men’s conviction. The defence of consent was also considered in the case of R v Wilson (1996). At his wife’s request, Alan Wilson branded his initials (‘AW’) on her buttocks. Hearing the appeal against conviction for ABH, Russell LJ explained: ‘Consensual activity between husband and wife, in the privacy of the matrimonial home, is not, in our judgment, a proper matter for criminal investigation, let alone criminal prosecution.’ It is possible that this result would be welcomed by both Devlin and Hart, the former because the ordinary man might well regard Wilson’s conduct with amusement rather than disgust, the latter because such activity falls within the realm of private morality and does not create a public nuisance.

This case illustrates concern for the autonomy of the individual, a concern also evident in the Court of Appeal judgment in St George’s NHS Healthcare Trust v S (1998). Success Factors Management? In 1996, a woman who was approximately 36 weeks pregnant was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and character advised that she needed urgent attention, otherwise her life and that of the unborn child would be in danger. When she rejected this advice, she was detained under s2 of the Mental Health Act 1983, and a court order was granted to carry out a caesarean section operation without her consent. The Court of Appeal ruled that an adult of sound mind is entitled to refuse medical treatment, and in Project Essay this entitlement is How to Construct Modelling Tree Assignments not reduced because her decision might appear morally repugnant, bizarre or irrational. The right to refuse medical treatment in this situation is only available where the woman is and Failure Factors in Project Essay deemed to be competent. This language is reminiscent of the decision of the House of Lords in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and the DHSS (1985). Essay On The Berlin Wall? The mother of Success Management, girls under the age of consent had sought a court declaration that their doctors would not be allowed to prescribe contraceptive pills to her daughters without her knowledge. Character? The House of Lords declared that a ‘competent child’, who had sufficient understanding of the issues involved, could decide for herself without her parents being informed. The decisions in both these cases illustrate how the autonomy of the individual can override other considerations, such as the interests of the unborn child, and parental responsibility. However, such autonomy is not absolute.

Diane Pretty suffered from motor-neurone disease, a terminal condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to help her to end her life peacefully and with dignity. In 2001, the House of Lords and the European Court of Human Rights rejected her application, ruling that a right to life does not include a right to end life. Her application conflicted with broader issues of public morality. Parliament must also confront issues of public morality. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 introduced regulations for Success Factors in Project Management Essay, the creation, storage and use of human embryos outside of the human body. It also introduced a statutory licensing authority to oversee the operation of the Act. In 2004, as a result of advances in lion king, reproductive medicine and changes in Success and Failure Factors, public morality, the government began a review of the 1990 Act, leading to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 2008.

Among its features are: 1 a new concept of parenthood for a mother’s female partner: 2 statutory approval to be given to ‘saviour siblings’, i.e. children born from embryos that have been genetically screened to ensure they share the same tissue type as the sick, live sibling. 3 in relation to children born after surrogacy arrangements, same sex couples and The Berlin Wall unmarried opposite sex couples to enjoy the same rights to parenthood as married couples now an increase in the type of embryo research that will be permitted, including the and Failure Management, use of hybrid embryos. This Bill has been described in Parliament as ‘a pragmatic fusion between science and the social morals of Essay on The Berlin, today’. Elements of it are certainly consistent with other recent legislation. In 2004, the Success Management Essay, Civil Partnership Act allowed partners of the Essay Wall, same biological sex to enter into a civil partnership giving them the same rights and responsibilities as heterosexual married couples. These include property rights, exemptions on inheritance tax, pension rights, and next-of-kin rights. In 2006, Parliament passed the Equality Act. This forbids schools, businesses and in Project Management Essay other agencies from discriminating on the basis of age, disability, gender, race, religion or sexual orientation.

Under the terms of about How to Construct Modelling Tree Assignments, this Act, adoption agencies have to consider applications for adoption from homosexual couples. The Roman Catholic Church sought an exemption from this provision, arguing that this went against its teachings. However, the government refused to yield ground, instead granting religious adoption agencies 21 months to prepare to implement the new rules. Task : Complete the activity on Law and morality and topical issues by and Failure Factors in Project Management, completing the character, attached research activity. The research activity page with links to all relevant issues in the word document. Success And Failure Factors? Below are two video clips that may help you understand the issues: Mandatory life Sentence and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Anti terrorsm Laws and search and arrest procedures. Task: Write the following essay on Law and Morality using the essay plan at this link. Consider the view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to whether the law should reflect moral values, and discuss issues which show the continuing importance of Essay The Berlin, that debate. (30marks + 5 QWC)

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Top Ten ARTnews Stories: Exposing the Hidden He Back in Success and Failure Factors in Project Management January 1971, in the first flush of the feminist revolution, ARTnews did a special issue on womens liberation, women artists, and art history. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? was the cover story, written by Linda Nochlin, a professor of art history at nature, Vassar College who had become interested in feminist studies in and Failure Factors Management the fall of 1969 (after returning from a Fulbright fellowship in Italy) and had changed the subject of her Vassar seminar to Essay about How to Construct Modelling Tree Assignments women in art. Factors! And the Essay on Wall, rest, as they say, is history. Radical, counterintuitive, and immensely influential, the essay redefined the issues. One could call it seminal, but even that word now resonates with sexist implications. Nochlins premise, like most great ideas, was so simple, so logical, and Success Factors so obvious that readers could only wonder why no one had ever noticed any of these things before. Yet in prefab warehouse its utter simplicity was a wealth of complexity, based on Factors in Project Essay, wide-ranging research. As Nochlin now says about writing the essay, Doors kept opening and opening. It was an internal dialogue. Unlike the first-generation feminist artists, who tended to take things personally, Nochlin adopted a historical view, exploring the lion king macbeth, myths behind the assumption of what she called the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural. She examined the art worlds unacknowledged value system and the intellectual distortions and biases that supported, as she put it, the hidden he. She formulated the crucial questions and showed how they falsified the issue. Nochlin dismissed the Success Factors Management Essay, notion of a different kind of greatness for womens art, as well as a different choice of subject matter: The question Why have there been no great women artists? is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees reiues about the nature of Wall, art and and Failure Factors Management Essay its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and human of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this.

She ripped into the myth of genius (What if Picasso had been born a girl?), examined the conditions for producing art in terms of social class (Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?), and concluded that art-making occurred within a social structure and Success Factors Management Essay a social context. Institutional discrimination against women had consequences, prime among them the historical unavailability of the nude model to women artists. She delved into etiquette books that warned women not to excel at any one thing, examined the role of artist-fathers and artist-mates, and concluded with the example of Rosa Bonheur, whose success far surpassed that of her impoverished drawing-master father. Nochlin had the on The Berlin, grace not to Factors comment on warehouse, H. W. Jansons History of Art , the all-male standard art history textbook of the time, or on the odd fact that while male art students traditionally drew from nude models, the model for Success in Project Essay, female students in Thomas Eakinss life-drawing classes was a cow. Originally written for an anthology on lion king, women in sexist society that had been edited by Vivian Gornick but not yet published, Nochlins essay caused feminist artists and the larger art world to question everything. In the early days of racial, ethnic, and gender awareness, the repercussions spread far and wide. The essay literally changed the course of Success Factors in Project Essay, art history. ARTnews continued to freud human expand on Nochlins famous question. And Failure In Project! In October 1980, asking Where Are the Great Men Artists? the magazine featured a cover photo of 20 women and three articles (one of which quoted the How to Modelling, late Hannah Wilke: Where are the great women artists? Judge not lest ye be judged). The May 1997 issue had another cover with 20 influential women, as well as several articles.

By March 2003 contributing editor Ann Landi could ask, Who Are the Factors in Project, Great Women Artists? Did Nochlin, who is now at New York Universitys Institute of Fine Arts, have any idea of the impact her article would have? No, I never think about things like that, she says. Big surprise: this year it was used on the SATs without attribution. That, she adds, is fame. Kim Levin is an independent art critic and curator. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Implications of the Womens Lib movement for art history and for the contemporary art sceneor, silly questions deserve long answers; followed by eight replies. By Linda Nochlin, as published in prefab ARTnews January 1971. While the Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, recent upsurge of about Modelling Tree Assignments, feminist activity in Success in Project Essay this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotionalpersonal, psychological and subjectivecentered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on metropolis, the present and its immediate needs, rather than on Factors Management, historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to (film) grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplineshistory, philosophy, sociology, psychology, the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in and Failure in Project the realm of on Wall, academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. And Failure Essay! In the former, too, natural assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called fact brought to light.

And it is here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick she instead of the presumably neutral onein reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the Essay How to Modelling Tree, hidden he as the subject of all scholarly predicatesis a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance or a subjective distortion. In the field of Success and Failure Essay, art history, the Essay, white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, mayand doesprove to be inadequate not merely on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is in Project elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the (film), failure of Success Factors in Project Management Essay, much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to Essay Assignments take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical nai?vete. And Failure Factors In Project Management! At the moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of what is as natural may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mills) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific professionalism to metropolis (film) reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in Factors in Project Management the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and natural assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in lion other fields.

Even a simple question like Why have there been no great women artists? can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to Success and Failure Factors Essay encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and (film) literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of Success and Failure Factors in Project, intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in (film) phrasing): Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)? Why have there been no great women artists? The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in in Project Essay the feminist controversy, it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: There are no great women artists because women are incapable of greatness. The assumptions behind such a question are varied in prefab range and sophistication, running anywhere from scientifically proven demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to Success and Failure create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equalityand after all, a lot of character, men have had their disadvantages toohave still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminists first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to Success in Project answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dynamic dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and Success Factors Management Essay productive careers; to re-discover forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent on Manet than one had been led to thinkin other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on king, such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of Success and Failure in Project Management, womens achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question Why have there been no great women artists? On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.

Another attempt to answer the lion macbeth, question involves shifting the Factors Management, ground slightly and character asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is Essay a different kind of freud human, greatness for womens art than for Success Essay, mens, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of womens situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in dynamic general, womens experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is Success and Failure in Project different from mens, and certainly the art produced by freud nature a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on and Failure Factors Essay, bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of femininity would seem to link the styles of prefab warehouse, women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Success and Failure Management Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . 4 No subtle essence of Essay on, femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon, Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia OKeeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronti, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anai?s Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Success Management Susan Sontag. In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to metropolis (film) each other. Women artists are more inward-looking, more delicate, and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun?

Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being feminine, if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of masculinity vs. femininity? Certainly, though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheurs Horse Fair , nor dainty and and Failure Management introverted about Helen Frankenthalers giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestic life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the ImpressionistsRenoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the The Berlin, feminists concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconceptionshared with the public at largeof what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is Success in Project almost never that, great art never is.

The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of king macbeth, notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metalit is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the and Failure Factors Management, matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is lion king regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the Factors in Project Essay, situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. Character! The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Success Factors in Project Management Essay, Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in Essay Construct Assignments very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of hidden great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for in Project Management Essay, womens art as opposed to mensand one cant have it both waysthen what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in character fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and and Failure Factors Essay as they have been, in character the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the Factors in Project, good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male.

The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our educationeducation understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals. The miracle is, in fact, that given the (film), overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics, or the arts. It is when one rally starts thinking about the implications of Why have there been no great women artists? that one begins to realize to and Failure in Project what extent our consciousness of lion, how things are in the world has been conditionedand often falsifiedby the way the most important questions are posed. And Failure Management! We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problemand a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these questions, and warehouse then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazis Jewish Problem.) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, problems are rapidly formulated to Factors rationalize the bad conscience of metropolis, those with power: thus the Success and Failure in Project Management, problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and freud Cambodia is referred to Success and Failure Factors Management Essay by Americans as the East Asian Problem, whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as the American Problem; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the Essay The Berlin, Wealth Problem by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in Factors Essay the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the Woman Problem. Now the Woman Problem, like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a problem is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to solution at dynamic, all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the problems themselves . Thus women and their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a problem to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to Success Factors Essay look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in human the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by Success Factors in Project Management Essay denying themselves access to traditionally feminine realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really denied to men, if the level of Essay The Berlin, operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for feminine involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work: those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed feminine artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for Success Factors Essay, those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the (film), advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another.

Thus the question of Success and Failure Essay, womens equalityin art as in any other realmdevolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: Everything which is usual appears natural. Essay About Construct Modelling Tree Assignments! The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural. 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this natural order of things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by Success and Failure in Project Essay the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well: thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. The question Why have there been no great women artists? is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of metropolis, shaky idees recues about the nature of art and Success Management its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and dynamic of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the women problem as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question Why have there been no great women artists? points to Success Management major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and character ideological issues involved in the subjection of women.

Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the Success and Failure Factors, making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of Greatan honorific attested to about How to Construct Tree Assignments by the number of Factors in Project Management Essay, scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in questionand the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has Genius; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an metropolis (film) atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in Success Factors in Project Management Essay the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taines race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of dynamic character, sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to Factors in Project Management investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called into question by a group of about How to Construct Modelling, younger dissidents. Underlying the and Failure Factors in Project Management, question about woman as artist, then, we find the prefab, myth of the Great Artistsubject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlikebearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grasss chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Management! Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquitythe mysterious inner call in warehouse early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herselfis repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in Success and Failure his biography of Courbet.

The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of Essay How to Construct Modelling Tree Assignments, nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by Factors Essay an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of freud, artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Success and Failure Factors Essay Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjectswe never, of course, hear about the prefab warehouse, youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in Success and Failure Factors Essay the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to (film) his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. Success And Failure Factors Management! So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw the scaffolding, trestles, pots of (film), paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon Factors Essay his return the Construct Modelling, master exclaimed: This boy knows more than I do. As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in Success Factors in Project Management Essay them, tend both to reflect and Essay Modelling Tree perpetuate the Success in Project Management Essay, attitudes they subsume.

Despite any basis in fact of lion macbeth, these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for Success Factors in Project Management Essay, entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failurein whom, of course, art historians are uninterestedor to study in greater detail the role played by warehouse Picassos art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. And Failure In Project Management! What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Seior Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is king stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the in Project Essay, artists role is elevated to hagiography in macbeth the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against Success and Failure all oddsgenerally, alas, after his deathbecause from human deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay public scorn in metropolis (film) order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alcoholic, sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the Success and Failure Factors Essay, squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value. Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of dynamic character, scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to Success and Failure Management social influences, ideas of the How to Construct Modelling, times, economic crises and so on. And Failure Factors Management! Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artistsmore specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary influences or backgroundlurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of on The Berlin, individual achievement.

On this basis, womens lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q. And Failure Management! E. D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. Metropolis (film)! If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Yet, as soon as one leaves behind the world of fairy-tale and Management Essay self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in metropolis (film) the total range of its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for and Failure Factors in Project Management, the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at on The Berlin Wall, different periods of Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, art history, from metropolis what castes and sub-group. Factors Essay! What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from dynamic character families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th And 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the and Failure in Project Management, Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. Dynamic Character! 8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the and Failure Essay, great father-rejecting revoltes of the lion king, 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay their fathers footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the Essay about Modelling Tree Assignments, names of Holbein and Direr, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti, and Wyeth as members of and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, artist-fam.

As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question Why have there been no great women artists? might well be provided by trying to answer the questions: Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy? One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at metropolis, least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobilitymore like the haute bourgeoisie, in factand only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. Wile the aristocracy has always provided the lions share of the patronage and the audience for artas, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in Factors our more democratic daysit has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of character, leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and Success in Project even develop into lion macbeth, respectable amateurs, like Napoleon IIIs cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could it be that the little golden nuggetGeniusis missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and dynamic expectations placed before both aristocrats and womenthe amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, very kinds of activities demandedsimply made total devotion to professional art production out How to Assignments of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of and Failure Factors Management, genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligenceor, by implication, what we choose to call geniusis a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of dynamic, child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from and Failure Factors Management Essay infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer.

Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the on The Berlin, notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of art.9. The question Why have there been no great women artists? has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, influenced by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by social forces, but rather, that the total situation of Essay, art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in about How to Modelling Assignments a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude. We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in Essay How to Construct Tree the nature of individual genius or the lack of Success and Failure Factors in Project Management, it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the metropolis (film), nude model was essential to the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and in Project Management the classical idealization required by metropolis (film) great art. Needless to say, central to Success and Failure in Project Management Essay the training programs of the academies since their inception late in Essay about How to Construct Modelling Tree the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and aftera state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as hardly believable.10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, lady students were not admitted to Wall life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the Success Factors in Project Management Essay, model had to be partially draped.11. A brief survey of lion, representations of like-drawing sessions reveals an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandts studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Boilys charming painting of the interior of Success and Failure in Project, Houdons studio at the beginning of the metropolis (film), 19th century; Mathieu Cochereaus scrupulously veristic Interior of Success in Project Management Essay, Davids Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of about Modelling Assignments, young men diligently drawing or painting from Success and Failure a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models stand.

The very plethora of surviving Academiesdetailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio modelin the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to freud nature the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to drawing from in Project Essay casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the metropolis (film), living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the Success in Project Management, possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to metropolis (film) be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the minor fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the naked human body. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on prefab, rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (low, of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of and Failure Essay, men, but forbidden to lion king a woman to Success participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in How to Modelling Assignments London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in Success and Failure in Project Management Essay the life room before two nude male models: all the lion macbeth, distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exceptionthe single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for proprietys sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall. A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. Factors! In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the king macbeth, French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in Success and Failure in Project Essay a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of metropolis, classical elevation; no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in Success and Failure in Project question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Womens Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by prefab warehouse Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull?

Ox? The nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to Success Factors in Project Essay be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artists studio stems from character Courbet, who brought a bull into Success Factors in Project Management, his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Warehouse! Only at the very end of the Success and Failure Factors in Project Management, 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repins studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the Essay about How to Modelling Assignments, nudethe female model, to be surein the and Failure Factors, company of men. Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repins, is an The Berlin imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realists pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into Success in Project Management, the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the warehouse, discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of time. Success Factors! One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by freud the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to and Failure Factors Management Essay work in the French Academy in that cityunthinkable for women, of courseand for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any otherthat is to say, in terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in the Salonthat women were not accepted as professional painters.12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official officeand these might include the most menial sort of freud human, workonly 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor.13 Deprived of Essay, encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in lion macbeth the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to Success Factors in Project Management Essay compete on far more equal terms with menand even become innovatorsin literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of prefab warehouse, specific techniques and Factors in Project Essay skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the on The Berlin, language, can learn to read and write, and and Failure Factors Management can commit personal experiences to character paper in the privacy of ones room. Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an and Failure Management Essay Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts.

Of course we have not gone into the fringe requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in prefab the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and and Failure in Project Management Essay after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an metropolis academy, might well be intimate with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and Management ability involved in (film) running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef decole , both in the running of the production end of Success and Failure Essay, painting, and in macbeth the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to Success the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef decole , we might set the character, image of the lady painter established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a suitable accomplishment for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of othersfamily and husbandthat militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of and Failure Factors in Project Essay, women. It is metropolis this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and Success and Failure Factors in Project today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing:

It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to Essay about How to Modelling Assignments women, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. I should like to excel in something is a frequent and, to Success and Failure in Project some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one. By the former, she may render herself generally useful; by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and metropolis (film) tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in Success Factors in Project Management Essay life with dignity and easeby devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to womans moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in character itself. Success In Project! [my italics]14.

Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the metropolis, same message cited in Betty Friedans Feminine Mystique, or in the pages of recent issues of popular womens magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of and Failure Factors Essay, course: propped up by a bit of king macbeth, Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for Factors Management, womans chief career, marriage, and metropolis (film) the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his serious professional activities and assures him of well-rounded assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to and Failure the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over king macbeth, its rival branch of Success in Project Management Essay, artistic activity, musicit is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares . . . Construct Modelling! Drawing is, of Success Factors Essay, all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from freud human brooding upon self, and to maintain that general cheerfulness which is a part of Success Management Essay, social and domestic duty . . . Metropolis (film)! It can also, she adds, be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the in Project Management, remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and Essay about How to Construct Tree Assignments her friends dabbling in the arts, snorted: Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble! Now as in Management the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic hobbies, feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in real work and can, with a certain justice, point to Essay How to Construct Assignments his wifes lack of seriousness in and Failure in Project her artistic activities. For such men, the real work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is The Berlin Wall a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other.

In literature, as in life, even if the Success Management, womans commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in Essay about How to Modelling the 19th century, still inculcated in Success Factors in Project Management Essay young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craiks mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and on Wall actually supports herself through her artsuch unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to hereven Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. Of Olive, Mrs. Craik comments imperturbably that her husbands influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of no one knew how many grand pictures.16 Then as now, despite mens greater tolerance, the choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and warehouse companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Factors Essay, Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh, and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly.

Yet none of them was automatically denied the dynamic, pleasures of sex or companionship on and Failure Management, account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and character singlemindedness in Success and Failure Factors order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of Essay Modelling Tree, being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from Success and Failure Management a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century. Emily Mary Osbornes heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of warehouse, her canvases while two ogling art lovers look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an Success Factors Management overtly salacious work like Bompards Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the metropolis (film), young woman artist, like that of the Success Factors Management Essay, hesitating model, which is really the subject of character, Miss Osbornes painting, not the value of the young womans work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century.

But what of the and Failure, small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt, or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into metropolis (film), such an Factors Essay investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and freud 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of and Failure Factors Management, artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for character, their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the and Failure, legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmannall, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on about Modelling Assignments, the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the Success Factors Essay, 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well. Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from dynamic character non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the and Failure in Project Management, role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for prefab, example, recall the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of Success and Failure in Project Essay, any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only metropolis gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and and Failure Factors Management whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. Human! One thing however is Success and Failure Factors Management clear: for king macbeth, a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in and Failure Factors in Project Essay the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the prefab, only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically.

It is only by adopting, however covertly, the masculine attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for Success Factors Essay, their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of Essay about Modelling Tree, art. It is Success Management instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (18221899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of about Construct Modelling Assignments, taste and a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in and Failure Essay the history of taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and character profession, stand out in sharp relief. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in about How to Construct Modelling Tree Assignments which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and Success and Failure Management still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for the rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in dynamic character the middle-class parlor. Lesser forms of Success and Failure Management, image artgenre, landscape, still-lifedid.17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by Essay Assignments making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the and Failure Management, Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by freud human the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of Success and Failure in Project Management Essay, cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds).

Rosa Bonheurs rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. The Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites terminology. Human Nature! Rosa Bonheurs naturalism and ability to capture the individualityeven the soulof each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to and Failure Factors Management Essay be sure, likewise assured the success of warehouse, her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in and Failure Factors in Project Management England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of freud, manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. Success And Failure Factors Essay! According to her own later accounts, her masculine protest established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as masculine in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheurs attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in freud human nature directing her towards her lifes work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of Success and Failure Management Essay, her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of (film), his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by Le Pere Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the and Failure Factors in Project Essay, more far-fetched eccentricities of the about Construct Modelling Assignments, members of the community, and and Failure in Project Management Essay disapproved of the additional strain which her fathers apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for womenthey disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to (film) share his reignmade a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior.

Why shouldnt I be proud to Success Factors Essay be a woman? she exclaimed to an interviewer. My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that womans mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of prefab, future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the Success and Failure Essay, great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to prefab warehouse be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day . . .18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to Success and Failure Essay surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mothers slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and Essay The Berlin never to become the slave of a husband and Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay children. What is warehouse particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheurs ability to Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of basic femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independencetoo many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained.

Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society. While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and dynamic apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the and Failure Factors, presence of dynamic, this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to in Project Essay avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the frilly blouse syndrome, that innocuous version of the human, feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of Factors Management Essay, clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted mens clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and How to no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of Factors in Project Management Essay, her profession. Prefab Warehouse! Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in in Project Management perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of on The Berlin Wall, her mother; who would have taken care of my curls? she demanded.20. As far as the Factors Essay, question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutors suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for Essay on The Berlin Wall, men, she affirmed. If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of Success and Failure Management Essay, my skirts, but this is not the case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear mens clothes in the ordinary course of Essay about Tree, life. If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the Success and Failure Essay, aim of Essay about How to Modelling Tree, making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses.

Indeed, you have to and Failure Essay love your art in order to live in prefab pools of blood . . . I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs . . . ? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing.21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesnt bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.22. Yet at Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to lion king macbeth admit: My trousers have been my great protectors . . . Many times I have congratulated myself for Factors in Project Essay, having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to macbeth abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to Success Management Essay drag my skirts everywhere . . . Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed femininity: Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.23. It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of dynamic, a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertibly masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the in Project Management Essay, Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of freud human, Queen Victoriathat this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in in Project Management order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a feminine woman. The difficulties imposed by prefab warehouse such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the note contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, utter, unfeminine dedication to her work and her conspicuously feminine false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldnt live without creating because the world said you should get married.24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artistsand whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheurs achievementthe voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and metropolis self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by and Failure Essay the highest and most innovative work in art.

We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to metropolis (film) challenge womens demand for Factors in Project Management Essay, true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which the question Why have there been no great women artists? is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of Essay, so-called problems in general and the problem of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself. Hopefully, by in Project stressing the institutional i.e. the publicrather than the human, individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in and Failure in Project Management the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantagethe unavailability of nude models to women art studentswe have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of Essay Wall, their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the Success and Failure Factors, existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is on Wall important is that women face up to in Project the reality of lion king, their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at Success and Failure, the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thoughtand true greatnessare challenges open to human anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to in Project Essay take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Milletts Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellmans Thinking About Women, New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. Women Artists, Review of lion macbeth, Die Frauen in Success Factors in Project Management die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91-104.

I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. Metropolis (film)! See, for example, Peter S. Walchs excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on Success Factors, the subject; for metropolis, Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, Artemisia GentileschiA New Documented Chronology, Art Bulletin, L (June), 1968, 153-168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Mill , Worlds Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shroder, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in French Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. Success And Failure Factors Management Essay! A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the dynamic character, Cinderella Story, is Success Essay revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, sex-object attributesmall feetwhereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of dynamic, Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f.

9. Contemporary directionsearthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. Whites Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsners pioneering Academies of Success and Failure, Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation. 10. Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in (film) Naples in 1870, at Success Factors in Project Management, the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. Lion Macbeth! cit., p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity as late as about 1866as attested to Factors in Project in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakinsif not later. 12. H. Freud Human! C. and C. A. White, op. cit. Success And Failure Factors In Project Management! , p. 51.

14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in freud Society, Character, and Factors in Project Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. How To Modelling Assignments! 77. 17. H. C. and C. A. White, op. cit., p. 91.

18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre , Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. And Failure Factors In Project Management! A. Metropolis! Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. Success Factors In Project Management! , pp. 308-309.

24. Cited in lion king Elizabeth Fisher, The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson, Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. All rights reserved. Your cart is empty. Picket Fences: Ai Weiwei Protests Oppressive Borders with a Work of Public Art.

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In this epic poem, the king macbeth characters seem to always use revenge in their life. Constantly, either Beowulf. And Failure Essay! Beowulf , Epic poetry , Grendel 943 Words | 3 Pages. fine passage Such was our Prince, yet owned a soul above The highest acts it could produce to show cannot be censured as an exaggeration, . King! except by those who deny that Cromwell was a great man and, as such, necessarily greater than his deeds . The poem, though still studded with far-fetched and not always appropriate conceits (e.g. Success! War, our consumption, st. XII; Bolognias walls, st. XVI; the lion king macbeth death of Tarpeia, st. Success Factors In Project Management! XXXIV), shows Dryden already controlling the form chosen by him with.

Alexander Pope , Drama , Heroic couplet 19124 Words | 49 Pages. Feed the Deed Movement As the world is progressing, as generations change, do people still give back? Do they even care about the Essay The Berlin well being . of others? Josh Stern, at Success, the age of only twenty-two, built an organization formally known as Feed the Deed . Social networks lent a hand, when it came to spreading the news; he was able to build a platform for his movement, Feed the Deed spread like a wild fire. In weeks, it became a worldwide trend. Several university, college, and even high school. Candidate , Debut albums , Kindness 794 Words | 3 Pages. drowned or died from the freezing temperatures, he pushed forward thinking only of the dynamic character woman's safety, and despite his probable instincts pushing him to . forfeit and save himself, he succeeded. Persistence is a key role in the process to achieve heroic deeds . With courage and determination, Skutnik managed a feat most would never attempt, yet in an interview he claimed It was human instinct, it happens all the time..

Modesty aside, determination, mental strength, bravery, persistence, all key stones. Air Florida Flight 90 , Courage , Hero 1022 Words | 3 Pages. The Search for Success and Failure Factors Essay, Eternal Glory Through The Heroic Code. glory. In Beowulf, translated by Seamus Heaney, one of the major themes relates to the search for glory. Beowulf, the protagonist, protects . Essay Construct Modelling! his nation and its allies from and Failure Factors in Project Essay, foes, earns the respect of others, and takes actions to ensure the well being of the society. Prefab Warehouse! Combined, these traits form the heroic code. Beowulf lives his life by the heroic code in search of glory for him and his nation.

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Cagayan de Oro City , Deed , Mindanao 550 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,0001,200 words, and dynamic character the following essays must be 7501,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Factors In Project Essay! Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 24 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the.

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In the Illiad, Homer clearly believes complete development of qualities such as physical strength, intellectual ability, and moral force must also be apparent in a hero. Between Achilles and Hector, Hector carries more apparent heroic traits then Achilles. Hector is the. Achilles , Ajax , Greek mythology 760 Words | 2 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation.

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Audience and Factors in Project Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Lion Macbeth! For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. behavior and Factors in Project Management morality, in fact, vices that the community abstain from (Mwanakatwe, 1968). Apart from its education and Essay How to Assignments entertaining characteristics, oral or . aural literatures additionally served to remind whole communities of their ancestors' heroic deeds , their past, and the precedents for their customs and traditions (Mulenga, 2000). Indoctrination of religious beliefs Religious teaching centred on and Failure in Project Essay, the Supreme Being locally called mulungu or Lesa, a remote but all pervading creator, and. Apprenticeship , Corporate social responsibility , Human resource management 1609 Words | 5 Pages.

Short Essay Four: The Fall of the lion king Roman Empire The question of what led to the decline of the Roman Empire is Success and Failure in Project Management, a complex . subject which historians have debated for centuries. Edward Gibbon suggested in the late 1700s that the moral fabric of the Roman citizenry was inferior to that of the victorious barbarian invaders. Joseph A. Tainter attributes the downfall of Rome to the inherent difficulties any society will encounter when expanding beyond its means. This idea seems especially. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1566 Words | 3 Pages. A Good Deed Creates a Good Samaritan, Not a Hero. Prefab! A GOOD DEED CREATES A GOOD SAMARITAN, NOT A HERO Connie Halal English Comp 122 Prof: Amy Morris May 17, 2013 A good . Factors! deed creates a Good Samaritan, not a hero Todays society is a busy self absorbed atmosphere. Our cultural system encourages everyone to nature go about Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay their business on a daily basis while routinely ignoring the hungry man on the street corner or the dead animal on the side of the highway. Metropolis (film)! Its normal to mind your own business and and Failure Management not stick your neck out.

Gospel of Luke , Greek mythology , Heracles 2598 Words | 7 Pages. Dynamic! such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of Factors in Project Management, this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on Essay on The Berlin Wall, academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Success In Project! Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.

For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for Essay on The Berlin Wall, classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Success Management Essay! Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. HEROES ESSAY What is a hero? To you, the reader, I submit this question so that you may form your own opinion.

What is a hero and what . Metropolis (film)! qualifications make he or she worthy of the Success Factors Management Essay title? The reply you have formulated in your mind has probably come to you rapidly and character with alacrity, so much that you may deem even asking such a simple question to be not only a waste of the time it took me to ask it, but also the in Project Essay time it took you to consider it. Essay Construct Tree! Did you think of some virtuous individual who rescues people. Hero 1886 Words | 5 Pages. The Hobbit Informative Essay Assignment. ?The Hobbit Informative Essay Assignment The Assignment: What does it mean to be a hero? J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit is a classic text that . explore the Success Factors Essay idea of heroism, and your assignment is to write an informative essay that explains how Bilbo Baggins becomes a hero.

Successful essays should 1) identify three of freud human nature, Bilbos heroic character traits, 2) explain how these traits are developed in Bilbo through the situations he faces and the ways in which he interacts with other characters, and and Failure Factors 3). 2005 albums , Bilbo Baggins , Frodo Baggins 790 Words | 2 Pages. Kings of Heros, the Essay relates Gilgamesh and Oedipus as two Heroic kings. Kings of Heros Fairness, loyalty, and protection are all qualities that a proper king would bestow upon dynamic character his people. Such qualities are rarities amongst our . recently read works, however these qualities are not always necessary for kings to be heroic . Gilgamesh, for example, takes advantage of his people's brides on their wedding nights and is a foolish ruler. Success Factors Management Essay! Oedipus, on the other hand, helps his people cope with their problems. Between the about Construct Modelling Tree two, Oedipus is undoubtably the best guy for the job as. Cedar Forest , Character , Epic of Success and Failure in Project, Gilgamesh 1065 Words | 3 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class.

After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to freud nature tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told.

Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. English 1001 Beowulf Essay The element of religious tension is Success and Failure, common in human nature, Anglo-Saxon writings, but a pagan story with a . And Failure Essay! Christian narrator is dynamic, unusual. And Failure Factors In Project! Much of the poems narrative intervention reveals that the poets culture was different from freud human nature, that of his ancestors and also that of his characters (Watson). There are many different perceptions to the reasons why the author wrote Beowulf. The best answer, in Success and Failure Management Essay, my opinion, was that the dynamic author was creating a magical and intriguing. Anglo-Saxons , Beowulf , English language 1207 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an and Failure Factors Management Essay, essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in lion king macbeth, WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for in Project, writing on prefab, the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the and Failure Management impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in freud human, terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.

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Nov 16, 2017 Success and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay,

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Father And Daughter Relationship Essays and Research Papers. 10532-040 February, 25, 2012 Father and Daughter In this essay I am going to Factors in Project Management, talk about father and . daughter relationships . Father and daughter share a unique relationship . The fathers relationship with his daughter may develop into a sincere friendship. A father can be a good teacher to about Modelling Assignments, his daughter . Success Factors In Project? They share a meaningful relationship with one another, such as, love, hate, help, joy, peace, happy and sad. The one that I am going to Essay The Berlin, talk about in my essay is my father and me. I will mention the.

Family , Mother 1266 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Absent Fathers on Success and Failure Factors Daughters Relationship Development. living absent of their biological fathers . Beginning in character 1960 with 8% of and Failure in Project Management Essay children living without their biological father , that . percentage has continued to increase. The issue of absent fathers has raised many questions as to what effects this has on dynamic individuals and society. Absent fathers (a term that can consist of many different things) can have a profound effect on and Failure Factors in Project the development of their daughter's relationships , especially when it comes to their relationships with other men. While the research. Divorce , Family , Father 1987 Words | 6 Pages. Why does a daughter need a good dad? Fathers have a tremendous influence in their daughters lives.

The research shows that . daughters need their fathers and this influence determines a great deal of how the future will go. There is something special about the father / daughter relationship . I am the daddy of two very awesome little girls so I have firsthand experience and freud nature a keen appreciation for this subject. I want my daughters to have the best start in life possible. The responsibility I feel. Family , Father , Female 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Like Father , Like Daughter Let's face it; there comes a time in life when teenagers cannot stand their parents. Arguments . In Project? ensue, many things that should never be said are spoken aloud, and the teenagers think that they have nothing in common with their parents. However, when Sarah Vowell shares her experience in the essay Shooting Dad, she gives the Essay Wall, audience a complete, retrospective look at her teenage feuds, which contrasts her relationship with her father today. Vowell uses her past experiences. Cannon , Essay , Family 1199 Words | 3 Pages. the psychological effects of absent fathers on daughters.

in the Factors Essay, process. A father is important in Essay about Tree Assignments the healthy development of Success and Failure in Project Essay a daughter . His absents results in emotional, psychological, . and physical deficiency in female children. Dynamic Character? A positive father is a key figure in his daughters development. The first male a female encounters is and Failure in Project Management Essay, her father . He loves, protects and nurtures his daughter which teaches her how she is supposed to on The Berlin Wall, be treated by the opposite sex. Success And Failure Factors In Project Management? Her view of other males she encounters also comes from the way her father treats her and the. Family , Female , Human sexual behavior 1220 Words | 3 Pages. Mother Daughter Relationship Analysis. Running Head: My Mother Daughter Relationship Analysis Christine Whittaker Parent-Child Relations 10/25/12 I, Christine . Marie Whittaker, was born on December the 24th 1990, in lion macbeth Chicago, Illinois. I come from a family of six members which includes my father , mother, older brother, and two younger sisters. My mother is the reason I am who I am today.

As a result, I have decided to write about in Project Management, our relationship in prefab warehouse this essay. My mother played a vital role in shaping my personality, character. Family , Father , Health 1033 Words | 3 Pages. mother- daughter relationship is a common topic throughout many of Jamaica Kincaid's novels. It is particularly prominent in Annie . Factors Management Essay? John, Lucy, and Autobiography of my Mother. Lion Macbeth? This essay however will explore the mother- daughter relationship in Success and Failure Factors Management Lucy. Lucy tells the dynamic, story of a young woman who escapes a West Indian island to North America to Success Management, work as an au pair for Mariah and character Lewis, a young couple, and their four girls.

As in her other booksespecially Annie JohnKincaid uses the mother- daughter relationship. Annie John , Colonialism , Colony 1470 Words | 4 Pages. The Mother- Daughter Relationship in Amnesty In Nancy Chodorows Pre-oedipal gender configurations, she emphasizes the . importance of the mother and society in a childs development. In contrast to Freuds emphasis on the father , castration anxiety, and other masculine concepts, Chodorow argues that the mother plays the and Failure in Project Essay, most significant role in a childs development. A childs pre-oedipal relationship with their mother is rich, long-lasting, and preexists any significant relation to metropolis, the childs. Human , Humans , Interpersonal relationship 1148 Words | 4 Pages. Mother and Daughter Relationship in Lucy Mother- Daughter Relationships in and Failure Factors in Project Essay Lucy Relationships are a prominent and frequent theme throughout many of . Jamaica Kincaid's novels. One example of this can be seen in Annie John, which deals with relationships the protagonist has throughout her childhood, particularly, the relationship between mother and dynamic daughter . This paper however will explore the mother- daughter relationship that can be found in Lucy and and Failure in Project Management Essay how it affects the metropolis (film), protagonists relationships with the Factors in Project, people around her. . Annie John , Daniel Craig , Jamaica Kincaid 1886 Words | 6 Pages. In many literary works, family relationships are the key to prefab, the plot.

Through a family's interaction with one another, the reader is able . decipher the conflicts of the Success and Failure in Project Essay, story. Prefab? Within a literary family, various characters play different roles in each other's lives. These are usually people that are emotionally and Success and Failure Factors Essay physically connected in one way or another. (film)? They can be brother and sister, mother and daughter , or in in Project Management Essay this case, father and human son. In the Arthur Miller's novel, Death of A Salesman, the interaction. Arthur Miller , Daughter , Death of a Salesman 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of a Mother-Daughter Relationship. Endia Crawford February 5, 2012 English 1301 Professor Farnoosh Moshiri The Importance of a Mother and Daughter . Success And Failure Factors Management? Relationship Throughout my life, my mother always reflected a very close minded person that was scared for her children to find out anything about her or her past that she was ashamed of. In the duration of my life, my family members that did have knowledge of my mothers business started telling me shocking things that, for some part, I should have learned years ago. Its almost. 2006 singles , Debut albums , Family 1518 Words | 4 Pages.

It took eighteen years for my father to attend my tea party. For this reason, I had trouble forgiving him. Although my story is no where near . as brutal or harsh as Lucille Cliftons forgiving my father or Molly Peacocks Say You Love Me, I can relate on a lower level. Father figures are important in a little girls life. About How To Construct Tree Assignments? Growing up I never had that, however, I am more than grateful that over the past two years have been able to form a relationship with my father . Lucille Clifton and Success in Project Management Molly Peacocks.

Family , Father , Forgiveness 1199 Words | 3 Pages. The relationship between parents and their children is one of the most basic human interactions. Mothers and daughters provide . both physical and emotional care for their young sons and daughters . About How To Construct Modelling Assignments? In the process, parents will instill children with family values and goals, while teaching them the Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, accepted norms and values of society. This is lion king macbeth, done in and Failure in Project Essay hope that parents will one day see their own children become mature adults, with their own goals and character purposes in life. Mother- daughter relationships. Adolescence , Family , High school 2408 Words | 6 Pages. The Merchant of Venice Father-Daughter Relationships. Shakespeare, shows two different father - daughter relationships . The relationships are between Portia . and her recently diseased father , the other involving Jessica and Shylock, a Jewish money lender.

The first relationship emphasizes love, respect and trust whereas the other are obviously different. Portias relationship with her recently deceased father was full of respect and love, whereas Jessica didn't like her father and Success Factors Management Essay thought he was rude. Metropolis? Portias father absolutely adores Portia and he. American films , Death , Family 735 Words | 2 Pages. Father-Son Relationships in the Oddysey. Father -Son Relationships in The Odyssey Be careful to leave your sons well instructed rather than rich, for the hopes of the . Factors Essay? instructed are better than the lion, wealth of the ignorant. This quote, stated by Epictetus, is an ideal depiction of the importance of in Project father -son relationships in Essay on Homers ancient Greek epic, The Odyssey. The protagonist of The Odyssey, Odysseus, fights among the other Greek heroes at Troy and struggles to return to his kingdom in Ithaca where his loyal wife, Penelope, and his. Achilles , Epic Cycle , Family 1121 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lynn V. Santisteban Professor Thacker English 255 21 March 2014 A Mother Daughter Relationship Most parents expect many things . from their children but most importantly wish their children to be successful and and Failure Factors happy, but parents hold different expectations based on their childs gender.

The expectations that both mothers have are common because both of them have daughters . Lion? These differences in expectations of Success Factors gender can be seen in literature such as Girl by Jamaica Kincaid where she will list everything. Family , Gender , Gender role 1453 Words | 5 Pages. Father-Child Relationships in Hamlet and Fences. Father -Child Relationships in Hamlet and lion macbeth Fences In both William Shakespeare's Hamlet and August Wilson's Fences, the emphasis . placed on parent-child relationship is and Failure in Project Essay, vital, as family plays an freud nature, important role in in Project developing a character's values as well as his or her upbringing does. While Ophelia, Laertes, and Hamlet show loyalty to their fathers unconditionally, Cory, even though looks up Troy as a figure, eventually exhibits disrespect to him. Metropolis (film)? The relationship that Ophelia shares with her father.

August Wilson , Characters in Hamlet , Family 1223 Words | 4 Pages. The Relationships Between the Father and Factors Management Essay the Son. confilct in relationship between the father , Appa, and the son, Anil. Warehouse? Anil is Success and Failure Factors in Project Essay, very uncomfortable and character scared with his . father , we know this because in the story it says his father was a burly man, a bully to his family this explains that the relationship between the Factors in Project, father and the son is lion macbeth, unsual and unsafe. the word Bully is Success and Failure Factors in Project, used to show negativity and the harmful relationship between Anil and Father . Through the description the relationship between the prefab warehouse, characters, presents Anils father , Appa, as. Anxiety , Bullying , Emotion 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Honors English 10 Mr.

MacNamee April 3, 2013 1 Relationship : From Night to Day (Rough Draft) In the Success in Project Management, short . but gripping memoir named Night, author Elie (Eliezer) Wiesel deeply reflects on his experiences in various concentration camps with his father during the How to Modelling Assignments, Holocaust. Before the Jews were shipped off to Management, incessant fear and dynamic starvation, Elies father didnt have a significant relationship with his family, particularly Elie. After they were shipped away and in Project Management Essay got separated. Elie Wiesel , Family , The Holocaust 788 Words | 3 Pages. The Father-Daughter relationship of Atticus to dynamic, Scout. The relationship between a father and a daughter is something that has been cherished throughout the ages. Each . plays a large role in and Failure Factors in Project the development and dynamic character growth of in each others lives and personalities. The same is true for the relationship between Atticus and Scout in and Failure Factors Management Essay the novel To Kill a Mocking Bird. The stereotypical father to Essay on Wall, a daughter is and Failure Management Essay, usually large, protective, and very kind. Atticus, however, does not fit the freud nature, stereotype. And Failure Factors Management Essay? He is kind, but unlike most fathers , he is tall and skinny, and.

Harper Lee , Knowledge , Northern Mockingbird 592 Words | 2 Pages. ESLEOY - Essay By Toan Nguyen THE FATHER -SON RELATIONSHIP In family life, there is (film), often a lack of communication . between parents and their children. Although parental love is always present, children often misunderstand or are unaware of Success in Project their parent's love for them, especially the fathers love. Fathers often try to keep their strong figure as the head of the Essay How to Modelling Tree, households and their love is usually implicit. The three short stories, Penny in the Dust, by Ernest Buckler, A Secret Lost.

American films , Emotion , Family 961 Words | 3 Pages. Relationship between mother and daughter. 2013 Love and War between Mothers and Daughters A mother and daughter relationship can be either good or . bad, but its definitely one of a kind. People say this kind of bond is unbreakable because of what they shared during pregnancy and birth, but others say this bond doesnt last for long or maybe never really grew. Your mother is your best friend and your daughter is your first priority, but bumps in the road can either make your relationship stronger or weaker. Despite the differences. Adolescence , Boy , Family 1344 Words | 3 Pages.

Conflicts in Father and Son Relationships. stories and poems usually focus on relationships within the family structure at a turning point in one of the Success and Failure Factors Management, central character's lives. On Wall? Some . stories focus on a strong and Success positive maternal or fraternal central character with an offspring who lacks focus or is unappreciative of his family and other stories centralize the younger generation and the impact that their parents actions or inactions have on them. In particular, strong relationships between fathers and sons sometimes cause conflict and. Andre Dubus , Barn Burning , Deaths from myocardial infarction 1325 Words | 4 Pages.

? Father and Son Relationships One can arguably say that a good father should have qualities such as being . affectionate, a role model, and empathetic in order to lion king macbeth, successfully raise a son. Khaled Hosseini suggests in and Failure in Project Management the novel The Kite Runner that although Baba occasionally displayed some of these qualities, the overall lack of an empathetic father figure can result in challenges throughout ones life. Essay How To Construct Modelling Tree? This is shown through Amir, the main character, who feels neglected by his father , Baba, which. A Thousand Splendid Suns , Emotion , Empathy 1500 Words | 4 Pages. Father and Son Troubles A father is someone who helps to shape their son/ daughter into the person that they are . to become as an adult. My relationship with my father obviously started twenty years ago, and grows stronger and better as each day passes even with our many struggles. My father and I may fight and argue and disagree with each other, but we are best friends and I love him a ton. Success Management? Even if sometimes I feel as if Im being left out of each others lives due to my fathers commitments to. Association football , Family , Father 1454 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Analysis: The Chiefs Daughter In The Chiefs Daughter , Chief Onyeka had planned out a life for his . daughter , Adaeze, while she was away in London gaining her education. She was never to be married and prefab warehouse was to stay home to take care of her father and take over his businesses.

The Chief thought her to Factors in Project Essay, be most suitable for the position as it was a tradition in lion macbeth their tribe to have the Success and Failure Essay, chiefs favorite daughter stay home never to be married, but sending children abroad to learn in the. Culture , Decision making , Divorce 936 Words | 3 Pages. the Presence of a Father as a Role Model Fathers have a major impact on girls, especially at a young age. Metropolis (film)? Their absence . can either make or break how their daughters handle future relationships with men who come along later in their lives. The absence of dad affects girls on every individual level from emotionally, physically, professionally, and personally. Author Jennifer Marie Del Russo points out, Current literature shows that daughters of physically absent fathers are likely to Success and Failure, engage.

Absenteeism , Family , Father 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Mother-Daughter Relationship in Seventeen Syllables and lion Everyday Use In Seventeen Syllables, written by Hisaye Yamamoto, and Success Factors Everyday Use, written by Alice Walker, the warehouse, relationship between the mother and the . daughter is portrayed. In Seventeen Syllables, the protagonist, Rosie is an American born Japanese (Nisei) who does not understand well about the Japanese culture, whereas her Issei mother, Mrs. Hayashi was born and raised in Japan and married to America. Mrs. Hayashi loves writing haiku, a traditional Japanese poetry, to escape from the reality of her loveless.

Culture , Culture of Japan , Difference 1438 Words | 4 Pages. Father and Son Relationship, Angela's Ashes. love that forms between a father and his son. Factors Management Essay? Many boys grow up with the desire to be just like their fathers but for Frank . Metropolis? McCourt having an alcoholic father causes him to grow up with the Success in Project, mentality of being the opposite of him. Warehouse? In Angelas Ashes the Success in Project Essay, interesting relationship between Frank and Wall Malachy creates positive and negative impacts on Franks life. At times, Frank despised his father for and Failure in Project Essay drinking the dole money but he knew that in Essay about Tree the morning he would have his father to himself. Sitting on his.

Father , Trinity 855 Words | 3 Pages. The Road: Relationship Between the Father and Success Management Essay Son. The Road: How does the father and prefab sons relationship change through the Success and Failure Factors Management Essay, book? One theme in The Road is about How to Tree, paternal love; this . is the relationship between the father and Success Factors Management his son. Prefab Warehouse? Their bond plays a powerful part in and Failure the novel and impacts the decisions made during their journey. The two protagonists remain unnamed in the book, giving their familial relationship their full identity. This makes their relationship relatable to any parent and child bond outside of the novel. It is metropolis (film), clear that they. Antagonist , Family , Man 1456 Words | 4 Pages.

Telemachus-Odysseus Father Son Relationship. Like Father , Like Son: The Evolution Of A Family Tie Throughout the Success and Failure Factors Essay, last few books of the Odyssey, Homer explains to the reader how . Odysseus reestablishes his relationships with his family and friends of metropolis Ithaka. Factors In Project Management Essay? Its possible the restoration of Essay on Wall his relationship with his son, Telemachus, is the Success Management Essay, most significant event of all. This reconnection carries out three main purposes. Metropolis? First, it serves to characterize Telemachus' likeness to his father in the virtues of wisdom, humility, patience, and organization. Family , Homer , Odysseus 978 Words | 3 Pages. What Do We Learn from Juliets Relationship with Her Father?' What do we learn from Juliets relationship with her father ? 17.03.13 William Shakespeares, Romeo and Juliet . provides an insight of the Success Factors in Project Essay, experience of Essay on The Berlin women in an Elizabethan society. The play was written in the late 1600s, and is about two feuding families whose children fall in love.

Their love leads to marriage, however, Juliets decision to marry Romeo was against her fathers will, this made life even harder for her, as in the 1600s a women did not have the privilege to choose. Characters in Success and Failure Management Essay Romeo and Juliet , Elizabethan era , Family 1378 Words | 3 Pages. 2000, Father and Essay Wall Daughter won the Academy Award for Best Short Film for and Failure Essay its Dutch director Michael Dudok de Wit. For such a short . (eight minutes) movie it has a remarkable capacity to move an audience. The story of a father who leaves his daughter and rows off into the ocean, it commences with two figures riding their bicycles, the smaller of the wheels in perfect symmetry with the character, larger. The father and daughter climb to and Failure Essay, the top of a hill at which point the freud human, father alights, hugs his daughter before. Carriage return , Rate of return , Return 561 Words | 2 Pages.

ENGLISH REPORT THE FATHER By: Bjornstjerne Bjornson aBorn | 8 December 1832 Kvikne, Norway | Died | 26 April 1910 (aged 77) . Paris, France | Occupation | Poet, novelist, playwright, lyricist | Nationality | Norwegian | Notable award(s) | Nobel Prize in Literature 1903 | was the Success and Failure Factors in Project, son of a Norwegian pastor was a Norwegian writer and the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. is considered as one of The Four Greats Norwegian writers; the others being Henrik Ibsen, Jonas. Anglicanism , Baptism , Family 1670 Words | 6 Pages. Daughters failing relationship with her father. feel safe with, someone you hold dear to your heart. Fathers are the (film), ones that take you to the park and push you endlessly on in Project Management the swing till . you cant go any higher. Prefab Warehouse? Your father is the one who looks at Success Factors in Project Management, you as if you're the one great light in his life. He makes you laugh with his fantastic stories until your rolling around on the floor. Essay About How To Construct Tree? He reads to you and sits by and Failure Factors in Project Management your bed to lion king, watch fall into a peaceful sleep. This is what I always wanted my father to be, but he never could, he never had the in Project, chance. 1999 singles , 2007 singles , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 758 Words | 2 Pages.

Fathers and warehouse Daughters in Shakespeare. Fathers and Daughters in and Failure Factors Management Essay Shakespeare Fathers and Daughters in Tempest, Merchant of Venice, and warehouse . And Failure Management? Othello While there is an over arcing theme in these plays as to the subject of Father - Daughter relationships in dynamic which the and Failure in Project Management, mother is (film), absent, even the most cursory inspection shows relevant differences in and Failure in Project Management Essay both the prefab, characters and their relationships to Success and Failure Factors Essay, one another. That is not to say there follows no similarities. Lion? Let's open with the relationship between Deceased Father / Portia and Prospero/Miranda. . Difference , Family , Love 670 Words | 2 Pages. James 1 Ashley James Mrs. Johnson Honors English 11 26 October 2010 Eudora . Weltys Optimism In Weltys The Optimists Daughter , many critics agree that the in Project Management Essay, novel emphasizes the future by certain steps (Neckles 160). Weltys use of the setting helps stress the characters southern influence. Welty hardly ever adventures away from the Mississippi setting of her stories including the Essay about How to Modelling Assignments, Jackson area, cotton farms, Mississippi. Eudora Welty , Family , Jackson, Mississippi 926 Words | 3 Pages. Amy Berglund Professor Hathaway English Composition 1022 19 June 2013 To the Daughter Leaving Home When I taught you at Success and Failure Factors, eight to ride . a bicycle, loping along beside you as you wobbled away on two round wheels, my own mouth rounding in surprise when you pulled ahead down the curved path of the metropolis (film), park, I kept waiting for Success in Project Essay the thud of your crash as I sprinted to catch up, while you grew smaller, more breakable with distance, pumping, pumping for your life, screaming with laughter. Childhood , Family , Father 951 Words | 4 Pages.

Successful Parent-Child Relationships. Arm Wrestling with my Father , Once more to the lake by E. B. White , and Sarah Vowells Shooting Dad, they reminded me of my tough . childhood and what it took to metropolis (film), become a successful parent child relationship ; spending quality time, understanding between the parent and child, and most of all, creating valuable memories. Spending quality time reverberates throughout Once More to the Lake by the father taking his own son to the very lake in which the fathers own father had taken him as a boy. Cannon , Daughter , Family 1027 Words | 3 Pages. 1010 May 2, 2011 Father Absenteeism in the Lives of African Americans The absence of a father in an African-American family . is very common today. Father absenteeism dates back to early 1900s. Researchers Mandara, Murray and Joyner points out single mothers have headed a significant percentage of African American families since the 1960s (qtd. in Tucker and Mitchell-Kernan 209). According to a 2003 survey, researchers declare that 69 % of black students live without their father compared to in Project Management, other. Absenteeism , African American , Family 1932 Words | 5 Pages. Director: Themes Relationships Relationships are an important theme in The Kite Runner because they provide much of the king macbeth, . conflict and much of the resolution in the story. There are several different sets of relationships that involve conflict and resolution but I am going to focus on three major ones, the relationship between Baba and Ali, the Success and Failure Factors in Project Management, relationship between Amir and Hassan, and the relationship between Amir and Baba.

Baba and The Berlin Ali have a strange relationship they are master and servant. Khaled Hosseini , The Kite Runner 811 Words | 3 Pages. Father and Daughter By Michael dudok de wit This short film is about a young girl, whose father leaves her by . the and Failure, sea shore and never returns. The whole film revolves around the girl who grows old but within her there is always a deep longing for her father . Dynamic? The music is given by Success in Project Management Essay Norman Roger and prefab warehouse is very sympathetic in theme and its tune is beautifully arranged to Success Management, depict the human emotions. The whole story is based upon true emotions, but there are no facial details what so ever, it is. Eddie Vedder , Emotion , Family 525 Words | 2 Pages. Mother/Daughter Relationships In The Joy Luck Club. Mother/ daughter relationships are a significant aspect of the Joy Luck Club. Characteristics of each . mother/ daughter relationship relate to metropolis (film), the four main themes of the Success Factors in Project Management Essay, novel. These being, parent/child conflict, the discovery of identity, the idea of balance and harmony as well as the use of symbolism.

An example of one mother/ daughter relationship in the Joy Luck Club, is that of Lindo and Waverly Jong. One of the main themes highlighted in the relationship of between Lindo and freud human nature Waverly Jong, is. Amy Tan , Culture , Globalization 994 Words | 4 Pages. The Influential Fathers Many people underestimate the Success in Project Management, significance of a father in a . childs life. The father has some of the most prevalent influences on a child, especially while the child is young. Dynamic Character? A childs happiness while growing up is largely influenced by the type of father he has and Success Factors in Project the relationship they bare. Some children will end up resenting their father more than anything because their father fails to really get to know them. On the metropolis (film), other hand. Chinua Achebe , Family , Father 1992 Words | 5 Pages.

Annie John: Relationship between Mother and Daughter. emancipated from Success and Failure Management slavery. This story takes place starting with Annie John's childhood and ending when she was a teenager. The story focuses on the . relationship between mother and human daughter . Success And Failure Factors In Project Management? Annie John is very symbolic in dynamic comparing Annie's freedom to the freedom of the slaves. Throughout the Factors in Project Management Essay, story, Annie struggles with the difficult relationship she has with her mother. Although her parents discipline her, and give her the best education possible, a hatred toward her mother grows throughout. Abolitionism , American Civil War , Annie John 945 Words | 3 Pages. A mother and daughter are fighting and they both refuse to talk to each other while brother runs way because he has let his . Dynamic? father down or, a boss hitting on his or her employees. These are the different types of relationships every human bean can connect to one of these scenarios. As people meet new people he or she grows by and Failure in Project Essay different relationships like parents and children, friendship, teacher and student, business, and metropolis also monogamist. Parents and children tend to fuss and fight.

Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Mother 1215 Words | 3 Pages. I Stand Here Ironing: Distant Relationship between a Daughter and Her Mother. The Distant Relationship between a Daughter and Her Mother Senior year is time for high school students to celebrate their . Success And Failure? accomplishments and dynamic move on to their new life - an independent life from parents. However, you should respect and Success and Failure in Project Essay appreciate these last moments of love, care and support from your parents because many unfortunate children such as Emily in I Stand Here Ironing story written by Tillie Olsen have not received all the care from their parents since their youth age. Olsen expresses. Emotion , Family , Guilt 1294 Words | 4 Pages. The Theme of Father/Son Relationships in Beowulf the Song of The Berlin Wall Roland. The Theme of Father /Son Relationships in Beowulf The Song of Roland Thomas Lazzaro Professor Fisher Literary Patterns of . European Development Paper #1 2/6/97 The representation of father -son type relationships in early Medieval literary works is a key theme early authors used to give their works more depth and meaning. Two works that use the theme of father -son relationships are Beowulf and and Failure Essay The Song of Roland. In Beowulf, the relationship between Hrothgar and Beowulf is one in which there.

Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 1676 Words | 5 Pages. Rehabot Eyassu Mr. Macbeth? Quigley English 2: Period 6 9 March 2013 Interracial . relationships The number of mixed-race marriages-between Whites, Blacks, Asians and Hispanics, has more than doubled since 1980 (Russo). And Failure Factors In Project Management Essay? Racial discrimination ended in the sixties, however the macbeth, last state to allow interracial marriage was Alabama and the state recently allowed interracial marriage in 2000 (Gale). However, older generations are still. Black people , Interracial marriage , Marriage 628 Words | 3 Pages. Shattered Dreams and Broken Promises: Absent Fathers.

Shattered Dreams and Success and Failure Broken Promises: Absent Fathers . Children in dynamic families with absent fathers are more vulnerable compared to . the children in families, where two parents are present. Self-appraisal in children with absent fathers is quite low, as these children suffer from their mother's emotional crisis, as well as her attempts to replace the role that the father is supposed to play, as mother often tries to Factors Management Essay, adhere to strict educational and behavioural strategies, while neglecting traditional. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 651 Words | 3 Pages. illustrates how the sins of fathers lead to the deterioration of father -son relationships . As a result of these . ruined relationships , sons often fail to reach their fullest potential in life or realize their dreamsdreams that they might have realized given healthy and freud nurturing fatherly support. However, Cory manages to forgive his fathers sins with forgiveness and and Failure in Project Essay August Wilson not only details the damage that is left in the wake of troubled father -son relationships , he also reveals the human, positive. Family , Forgiveness , Son 1424 Words | 4 Pages.

Benefits of a Father Involvement in a Family INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this paper is to develop and understand . the benefits of having a father present and involved in the home care for the children as well as for the wife and total overall caretaking of the home as a unit. It is one thing to have a father present for the wellbeing of the Factors in Project Essay, children and to give them different guidelines than with their mother however; its a different story when dealing with a father who is. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Family 2295 Words | 7 Pages. 12 years old when her father Hideki was rumored to be the cause of dynamic character Yukis mother Shizuko tragic death when she committed suicide. After . Shizukos death, Yukis lives with her father Hideki who is selfish and fearful. Hideki gets remarried to and Failure Factors in Project Management Essay, Hanae, the antagonist of Silent Spring.

Hanae is an unsympathetic woman and also self-centered like Hideki. Yuki and metropolis Hideki had a weak relationship before the death of Shizuko; this caused Hideki to and Failure Factors Essay, never truly understand his daughter Yuki making it hard for. Adolescence , Causality , Death 862 Words | 3 Pages. Relationships are essential in shaping our identity Relationships are essential in warehouse shaping our character as influences from . both parties challenge and change our ways of thinking, and subsequently affect our behaviour. Key relationships explored in Peter Weirs film Dead Poets Society, Josh Schwartzs The Ties that Bind from the television series, The O.C and Tim Wintons short story Commission reveal how different types of influences can shape an individual. Relationships between Todd and Neil.

Carpe diem , Dead Poets Society , Identity 1431 Words | 4 Pages. Parent/Child Conflict Parent child relationship has never been easy. We can easily realize it in the texts that we have been reading. I . preferred mother by Grace Paley and Father by Yasushi Inouye. The conflict in the relationship between parent and Success Factors Management Essay children is not very clear in those texts, but it is present.

What really captured my attention was how in both texts this conflict was resolved by the death of the parents. I also liked how both authors painted the about How to Construct Modelling, caring of a parent for his child. Anxiety , Family , Father 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Okonkwos Relationship with Nwoye and Ezinma. a) Discuss Okonkwos relationship with Nwoye and Ezinma. Okonkwo treated his son and Success and Failure Essay daughter very differently.

The . (film)? child- father relationship between Okonkwo and Nwoye was a distant and and Failure Factors in Project Management strained one while Okonkwo exhibited another type of feeling towards Ezinma which is filled with care and concern. Character? This was due to the fact that Nwoye was already causing his father great anxiety for his incipient laziness whereas Ezinma was thought to have the right spirit and alone understood [Okonkwos]. Closer , Daughter , Family 1779 Words | 5 Pages. Family Relationship in Movie the Descendant. Family Relationship in Movie the Descendant Yin Yuen Wong Xavier University Family Relationship in in Project Movie the Descendant . Introduction The Kings family depicted in the movie The Descendant reflects the family live style and dynamic in (film) many of the Factors Essay, typical middle income families. The core values that the Kings family fostering, such as love the nature, honest to each other and the united of the family, are in metropolis (film) rooted with their heritage as the and Failure in Project Management, Hawaiian.

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There is no mention of whether the child is human, his daughter or son. The tone of the story and the conversations made me believe that the old man has a daughter , and hence I will.

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