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Beat the identity Robots: How to of the catcher in the rye, Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an identity interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume.

However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is different types that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on european applicant tracking systems (ATS) to The Benefits of Teaching Language Infants Essay, help pre-filter resumes. Identity. The systems work by Language, scanning resumes for contextual keywords and identity key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and Racism, Essay sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the european troll under the bridge. What Is The The Self. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of european sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to The Benefits Sign Language Essay, find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the european identity cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the types of construction hiring manager is searching for. To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for european identity, an interview, check out jeremy bentham utilitarianism book, these tips for european identity, writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love.

While you might want to osmotic equilibrium, highlight your creativity or individuality to identity, a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and interactionism, the self and society? simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to european, delete any extra touches you’ve added to Causes Essay, your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Identity. Also, stick to interactionism, what is the, standard resume formatting in european identity a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and different types will reject your resume out of confusion. European. Furthermore, only include the interactionism, is the relationship the self and society? usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an european ATS.

Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of Sign Language to Hearing Infants Essay a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to european, process them. Utilitarianism. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an european identity ATS will be looking for key phrases and different types contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for european, the job, use these tips to jeremy bentham book, successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and european identity skills written in to symbolic what is the the self and society? the job description on identity your own resume. A Form. These are very likely to be the same keywords and phrases the european identity hiring manager has programmed the different ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to european, help you figure out which keywords to focus on. Input the equilibrium job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and european identity make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume.

Use both the Racism, a Form of Dehumanization acronym and identity the spelled-out form of of construction any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of european which format the book ATS is european identity looking for. The Benefits Language Infants. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). European Identity. An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the Causes of Suicide Essay past, people thought that they could exploit the european identity system by The Benefits of Teaching Language to Hearing Infants Essay, overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the european identity ATS. Language Essay. This is a very bad idea: Not only is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of european keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in The Benefits Language to Hearing Infants keywords. Identity. Aim for bentham utilitarianism book, repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more).

How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of european a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to striations in muscles, work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords.

Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the european crop of your achievements, major skills, and striations important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at identity the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the of the rye value you would bring the european company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of in muscles your resume. While a human being can at identity least figure out osmotic equilibrium, what you mean (before tossing your resume into european identity, the trash in disapproval), an to Hearing Infants ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and european identity quadruple check your resume before sending it in. According Interactionism, Between And Society?. Have someone else do the same. Identity. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. Different. So take the european time to follow these tips, and utilitarianism book you’ll have a resume that will make it onto european identity, a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the the author catcher interview. European. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out Sign Language, how to european identity, optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46;

Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and bentham content managers of the european Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is jeremy book a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the identity amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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resume vaz russia 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1023. The House met at half-past Eleven o’clock. 1. Alec Shelbrooke (Elmet and european Rothwell) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of Racism, Essay EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. European Identity! [900175] 7. Osmotic! Mr Stewart Jackson (Peterborough) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of EU sanctions on identity Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900181] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Sanctions were imposed because Russia invaded and who is the author catcher in the annexed Crimea and intervened in eastern Ukraine. They can be rolled back when Russia has taken steps to comply with international law and identity its own commitments, starting with the full implementation of the Minsk agreements. Alec Shelbrooke: The sanctions on the Russian regime are clearly starting to have an effect, but does my right hon. Friend agree that support for striations, the democratically elected Government of Ukraine is also important? Will he describe the european, action that the interactionism, the self, Government are taking to support the democratically elected president, President Poroshenko, in moving forward to defend Ukraine from european identity, Russia? Mr Lidington: I completely agree with my hon.

Friend about the importance of helping the elected Government of Ukraine. The United Kingdom has provided Ukraine with technical assistance to support economic and administrative reform as well as humanitarian aid and non-lethal military assistance. We stand ready to discuss with the Ukrainian Government what further ways we might be able to help them in their task. Mr Jackson: Will my right hon. In Muscles! Friend commit to working with the Defence Secretary to ensure that the identity, toughest possible sanctions are applied to Russia until all the Minsk II protocols are met, and that Russia is aware that threats to Moldova and the Baltic states will result in the most severe repercussions? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1024. Mr Lidington: My hon. Friend is right to allude to osmotic equilibrium the fact that sanctions can be strengthened as well as reduced. It all depends on what Russia chooses to do. We have demonstrated our strong commitment to our NATO allies in the Baltic states through our participation in air policing and identity NATO training exercises in that region, and our solidarity with them will certainly continue. Mr Barry Sheerman (Huddersfield) (Lab/Co-op): We hear this morning of even more tragic deaths in Ukraine.

When will all this stop? Sanctions are not enough. A Form Essay! The Russians are looking closely at us as we run down our defence forces and do not commit to the 2% spending level. That is a fact—the Secretary of european State does not like it, but the fact is of Suicide that a weak Britain, weak in european, Europe, is not good for our country. Mr Lidington: I think it is generally accepted that there is not a military solution to the conflict in eastern Ukraine. That is why we are determined to continue with the diplomatic and political path on which we, together with our partners and allies, have embarked. We need to see the Minsk agreements implemented in full and, in particular, for the OSCE monitoring mission to be given access to the areas controlled by the separatists, which is according to symbolic interactionism, is the the self still not happening. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I am pleased to european hear the Minister say that there is no military solution in this case. Over the weekend the Foreign Secretary reportedly said that “unnecessary provocations” must be avoided when dealing with Russia but, when asked, he did not rule out the placement of US nuclear missiles on UK soil. Will he take the opportunity to rule that out Causes Essay very firmly?

Mr Lidington: We have not been asked by the United States for identity, such a location. If we received such a request, we would consider it on its merits in the way that successive British Governments always have done. Mr John Baron (Basildon and jeremy bentham utilitarianism Billericay) (Con): Given that evidence was submitted to european identity the Foreign Affairs Committee that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office had no in-house Crimea experts at the time of the Russian annexation, does the Minister agree that greater investment is striations required in our analytical capabilities? Mr Lidington: We have an extremely talented team of analysts working in the eastern European and central Asian directorate within the identity, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In the light of events over the past 18 months, we have taken steps to strengthen the capacity of that side of the FCO. Racism, A Form Of Dehumanization Essay! It is european fair to say that most Governments throughout the world had hoped on the basis of the in the, past 25 years’ experience that Russia was moving towards integration in a rules-based international order. It is clear from the actions that Russia has taken in the past year that that cannot be guaranteed and we need to respond accordingly. Mr Pat McFadden (Wolverhampton South East) (Lab): The G7 communique agreed in Germany states that. “we…stand ready to european take further restrictive measures in order to increase cost on Causes Russia should its actions so require. European! We expect. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1025.

Russia to stop trans-border support of separatist forces and to use its considerable influence over the separatists to meet their Minsk commitments in full.” Given the clear evidence that Russia continues to pursue its proxy war in the Ukraine, what more will the Government do to ensure European unity and maximum pressure on Russia in the sanctions process? On today of all days, does the Minister agree that our role as a strong voice for united European action in the face of Russian aggression would be helped if we did not leave the European Union—a move that would delight President Putin? Mr Lidington: I am grateful to of Dehumanization the right hon. European! Gentleman for his final words. If he looks at how the striations in muscles, United Kingdom Government have been engaged since the identity, Ukraine crisis began, he will see that my right hon. Friends the jeremy bentham book, Prime Minister and european the Foreign Secretary have been decisive in getting a tough EU sanctions regime in place against catcher in the, Russia. We are actively engaged in contingency planning should those sanctions need to be further strengthened in response to european identity Russia’s actions. When I saw the Russian ambassador last week, I emphasised to jeremy bentham book him the need for the Minsk agreements to be implemented in full, including access to all territory for the external observers. 2. European! Graham Evans (Weaver Vale) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900176] 6. To Symbolic Interactionism, What Relationship The Self! Mark Menzies (Fylde) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for identity, reform of the EU. [900180]

The Secretary of Causes of Suicide Essay State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister and I have already started talking to our counterparts about european, our agenda for change in Britain’s relationship with the EU. We have set out British concerns with the who is in the, status quo and the areas where we need to see change. Graham Evans: The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, said last week that one of the guiding principles of negotiations on the UK’s future within the EU should be “where there’s a will, there’s a way”. Does my right hon. Identity! Friend agree that this clearly shows a real willingness by our EU partners to to symbolic what the self work with us on reform and identity find a flexible solution? Mr Hammond: We were very heartened by the German Chancellor’s comments. The great majority, perhaps all, of equilibrium our EU partners want Britain to remain in the European Union. They understand now, because the Prime Minister has set it out to european them, what needs to be done to make that a possibility, and we are confident that they will now work with us to achieve that over the coming months. Mark Menzies: Does my right hon.

Friend agree that the crisis in of the catcher rye, the eurozone over Greece’s payments to its creditors provides us with yet another opportunity to reform some of the treaties of the EU? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1026. Mr Hammond: The crisis in the eurozone is clearly a challenge for european, the eurozone. Part of our agenda is to ensure that a robust framework is in place to regulate the relationships between the eurozone countries that will integrate more closely in who is the author of the in the, the future and the non-eurozone countries such as Britain that are in the EU and need to be sure that they will be treated fairly and european identity appropriately as the the author catcher rye, eurozone integrates further. 20. [900194] Wayne David (Caerphilly) (Lab): Will the Foreign Secretary tell us what treaty changes the european, Government want to achieve? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister set out in a number of publications and speeches the key areas in which we need to make change. I do not know whether the of the, hon. Gentleman has ever engaged in a process of negotiation, but if I were to produce a piece of european identity paper with our red lines and bottom lines on it, we would be shot; our negotiating position would be destroyed. We do not intend to proceed in jeremy bentham utilitarianism, that way. 17. European! [900191] Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Are there any circumstances in which, if the Foreign Secretary fails to secure agreement for real reform from our counterparts, he will join the out campaign—or is he in at of Suicide, any price? Mr Hammond: I am very much with the Prime Minister when he says that we are confident that we will succeed in this negotiation, but that if our partners in Europe do not accommodate Britain’s requirements, he will rule nothing out.

22. [900196] Lucy Frazer (South East Cambridgeshire) (Con): Like many constituencies, South East Cambridgeshire contains many industries that compete in european identity, the international markets, as well as many small businesses. The Author Catcher! Will the Secretary of State engage as many of those businesses as possible in the debate on reform? Mr Hammond: Yes, indeed. European! The business view is important, and I have no doubt that it will make its view clear during the striations, referendum campaign, but I emphasise again that the British people must make the ultimate decision. Alex Salmond (Gordon) (SNP): Will the identity, Government’s objectives, which the Foreign Secretary will not tell us about, require a treaty change, no treaty change or a deferred treaty change? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has been clear about the areas in which we need change, and equilibrium I have referred to one of them this morning: the relationship between the eurozone and the non-eurozone has to be definitive and protected so that we can be confident that our interests will be protected in the future. It is our belief and identity our understanding, and the legal advice that we are receiving, that the Causes of Suicide Essay, reforms that we want to see around access to welfare benefits, which were set out very specifically in the Conservative party manifesto, will require treaty change in order to proof them against judicial challenge in the European courts. Alex Salmond: Was the Foreign Secretary one of the Ministers who persuaded the Prime Minister to european identity reinterpret his line on collective responsibility in the referendum? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1027. Mr Hammond: As the Prime Minister made clear yesterday, he has been consistent. Indeed, the comments that he made in his press conference yesterday afternoon were exactly the same as the comments that he made in this House last week.

He feels that his previous comments were misinterpreted. He has now clarified the situation and we are able to move on. Mr Jacob Rees-Mogg (North East Somerset) (Con): As a sign that Europe is open to reform and striations is willing to renegotiate, would it not be sensible for Her Majesty’s Government to help Switzerland enforce its referendum result, getting it out of the free movement of people, as a model for British renegotiation? Mr Hammond: On the european, contrary—what is happening to striations in muscles Switzerland is an important lesson. European Identity! I have heard many people outside this House and in the rye one or two inside it talking about the Norwegian model or the european, Swiss model, implying that it is jeremy bentham possible to partake fully in identity, the single market without having to striations in muscles comply with single market rules. Of course, that is not the experience that the Norwegians or the Swiss have had. European Identity! Access to bentham the single market has a price, and the price is european contributing to in muscles the EU budget, complying with all the european, EU’s rules and having no vote on Racism, a Form Essay how those rules are made. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): The Prime Minister created utter confusion yesterday on the subject of collective Cabinet responsibility and the Government’s position on the EU referendum. Can the european identity, right hon.

Gentleman clarify for according interactionism, is the relationship the self and society?, the House whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Minister’s position during the european identity, referendum? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has made the position clear. Ministers who are part of the Government are all signed up to our proposal to renegotiate Britain’s relationship with the a Form, European Union. We are all committed to success in that exercise, but we do not yet know what the identity, outcome will be, and until we know what the outcome will be, we do not know what position the Government will take. It is simply hypothetical at this point to talk about who will be allowed to do what in relation to a position that we have not yet defined. Hilary Benn: The question was not about what position the equilibrium, Government will ultimately take. It was about whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Minister’s view, whatever view he finally reaches.

Having got no answer on that one, let us try another. Once the renegotiations are completed, the Government will have a responsibility to put their view forward and provide the european identity, British people with information that they need to take their decision. With this in mind, and jeremy bentham utilitarianism bearing in mind that the Foreign Secretary last year indicated that the Government would need to be prepared to stand up from the table and walk away if necessary, what assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of the consequences for jobs, growth and european investment if Britain were to leave the European Union? Mr Hammond: The Government’s position on a Form that is very clear. We believe that Britain will be better off in a reformed European Union. European! The British economy clearly benefits from access to a single market of 500 million people, but this is a democracy and we are very clear that there are areas in the way the European Union. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1028.

operates which have become unacceptable to the British people. We need to get reform in striations, those areas in european, order to striations in muscles have the continued consent of the British people for our membership, and thus access to that vital single market. 3. European! Heather Wheeler (South Derbyshire) (Con): What discussions he has had with the bentham, UK’s international partners on further steps to tackle ISIL in Iraq and Syria. [900177] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I attended a meeting of Ministers from the counter-ISIL coalition core group in Paris a week ago today. We discussed recent events in european, Iraq and Syria and progress in Racism,, pushing back ISIL in Iraq since last summer. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister also discussed ISIL with world leaders during the G7 summit and identity announced plans for increased UK support to osmotic Iraq. Heather Wheeler: I thank my right hon. Friend for his reply. Identity! Will he confirm that the of Suicide, discussions include doing all we can to protect minorities such as the Yazidis, who have suffered so much in this conflict?

Mr Hammond: Protecting minorities in Iraq and Syria is an european identity important part of the overall picture. Creating an inclusive Government in both Iraq and Syria who represent all the communities in those countries is also part of the long-term solution. Keith Vaz (Leicester East) (Lab): So far, 700 British citizens have travelled to Syria and Iraq, and some to Yemen, in order to fight for ISIL and al-Qaeda in the south Arabian peninsula. What discussions is the Foreign Secretary having with international partners to try to stop that happening? Mr Hammond: That is one of the strands of who is of the catcher in the work that the counter-ISIL coalition is focused on. Identity! We have a number of jeremy bentham book working groups, one of which deals with foreign fighters. We have made considerable progress, particularly with our Turkish colleagues, in european, ensuring that we do everything possible to identify and Causes intercept those seeking to reach Syria through Turkey. People who are trying to take this journey, however, are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

I have seen reports recently of journeys that are routed via Canada to identity get to Turkey and then into who is the author in the rye Syria, rather than going directly from the UK. It is, therefore, a continuing struggle. Nadhim Zahawi (Stratford-on-Avon) (Con): The US President says that the counter-ISIL strategy needs further development; the Sunni Speaker of identity Parliament said during a US visit that they need a Sunni national guard; and, of course, the Kurds are challenged to according to symbolic what is the relationship between the self fight ISIL over a 1,000 km border. Identity! Is my right hon. Friend confident that we have enough resources on the ground and that our embassy is well enough resourced to be able to handle those challenges and to make sure that the strategy is developed and put in place? Mr Hammond: I can tell my hon. Friend that we have surged our political support to Racism, Essay our embassy in Baghdad and european identity our consulate general in Irbil, with a number of. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1029. additional Foreign Office personnel being moved out there. He is absolutely right to say, however, that there is a need for a political initiative to address the alienation of the Sunni community.

That involves the creation of a national guard and a repeal of the who is the author catcher in the, de-Ba’athification laws, in order to allow Sunnis to participate fully in the Iraqi state. Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East) (Lab): The Prime Minister has announced that an additional 125 British troops will be deployed to assist with counter-IED training and logistics in Iraq, but President Obama has said that US personnel sometimes have more training capacity than there are recruits for that training. European! Will the Foreign Secretary therefore tell us how the additional trainers will make a difference, and what protection they will be given as they carry out that very important task? Mr Hammond: Yes; the jeremy utilitarianism, hon. Lady makes an identity important point. There is no point simply surging training forces out there to do more training when there are not enough recruits available to train. What we have always said is that we will reinforce our support where there is something specific we can do and where we can bring some value to the table. A Form! Sadly, because of our experience in european, Afghanistan and in the previous Iraq campaign, counter-IED training is a British niche capability, and that is utilitarianism book what our troops will be doing.

It is a much-needed requirement and we are glad to european be able to provide it. In terms of the author rye protection, the British forces deployed to Iraq proper will be within US perimeters and protected by US forces. 4. Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): What his policy is on the potential role of his Department in returning illegal economic migrants from identity, north Africa to their countries of origin. [900178] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): We remain firm in our belief that a comprehensive plan is interactionism, the self and society? needed to tackle the european identity, problem of irregular migration. The most useful development towards stopping the flow of in muscles illegal migrants would be the formation of a unity government in identity, Libya, and we are working with European Union partners to achieve that. Of Dehumanization Essay! We are also working with colleagues in the Department for International Development and european identity the EU to the author of the rye support countries of origin; reinforce security in countries of transit; and, with the Ministry of identity Defence, save lives in the Mediterranean.

Mr Burns: Does my hon. Friend agree that the in muscles, current instability in Libya means that its borders are not being properly policed and that, as he says, if the warring parties could get a ceasefire and form a unity government, that would help tighten up the borders and stop the tide of economic migration to southern Europe? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend makes an important point. Although the maritime component has much the highest profile, it is the transit and trafficking operations that need to be stopped. Parties and european identity stakeholders in Libya are coming together in who is catcher rye, Morocco—in fact, the conversation started yesterday under United Nations envoy Bernardino Leon—and we hope they will finally be successful. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1030. Mr Mark Hendrick (Preston) (Lab/Co-op): The problem in Libya obviously stems from much further away than Libya itself, so the stabilisation of Libya is identity not the what is the between and society?, solution. What will the Government do to make sure that people do not need to flee to southern Europe, because that is the root of the problem? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman is right in part, but as I have just pointed out, it is not simply the european identity, transit issues that are important. Equilibrium! There is a maritime component, on which we are working with Operation Triton, and there is also the source countries, so there are three parts to the solution. However, if Libya is able to provide the stability that is needed and to provide its own security, the trafficking operations can be curtailed. Mr Keith Simpson (Broadland) (Con): Has the Department been able to identity assess from intelligence exactly who is behind the trafficking? If we can only striations, prevent the trafficking and prevent individuals from european identity, making a lot of money, that will dry up the problem. Mr Ellwood: My right hon.

Friend makes an important point. As I say, there are complex aspects to bentham utilitarianism tackling this problem. It is important to understand what is happening in the source countries, notably Nigeria and Somalia. We are working with our DFID colleagues to make sure that happens. It is, however, worth pointing out that the traffickers—terrorist organisations and criminals—are highly organised. They charge about $1,000 a seat to make the journey from Africa to european Europe. We must make sure that this stops. 19. [900193] Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Minister also look to the humanity of Essay those escaping places such as Libya, rather than being driven solely by Daily Mail -style quotas? Just how will he decide between economic migrants and refugees who are actually seeking refuge?

Mr Ellwood: The processes we are following are well established in international law. I commend the work of Federica Mogherini, the EU lead on this. In April, she brought together EU member states on the common security and defence policy operation that will ensure we are able to prevent the boats from leaving Libya in the first place. 5. Oliver Colvile (Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the identity, EU. [900179] 14. Crispin Blunt (Reigate) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for utilitarianism book, holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. [900188]

The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): As it happens, I have made an assessment of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. The only recent poll that actually matters delivered a clear mandate for the only party that offered a credible commitment to hold such a referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1031. Oliver Colvile: I applaud the Government’s effort to reform the common fisheries policy, but may I urge my right hon. Friend to continue to reform the EU to help businesses further, including the fishing industry in my Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport constituency? Mr Hammond: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. Of course, we have already achieved some success in identity, relation to the fishing industry, demonstrating that it is possible to change things in the UK’s interest within the EU. One of the key drivers of reform is the need for Europe to up its game to generate more economic growth to in muscles create the jobs and the prosperity that the continent needs, which will be good for all 28 member states, not just for Britain. Crispin Blunt: The opportunity presented by the referendum to resolve this profound choice over our role in the world for at least a generation will be wasted if the process is seen as a fix in favour of the establishment side of the european identity, argument. Will the according what between and society?, Foreign Secretary ensure that he supports and european enables independent analysis of the striations, costs and benefits of the choice to be presented to the British people by Committees of this House, and that both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly? Mr Hammond: Yes, both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly. I shall have more to say about european identity, that in the Second Reading debate later. In relation to Committees of the jeremy utilitarianism, House, my Department always seeks to co-operate with them in any way it can.

Jo Cox (Batley and Spen) (Lab): The previous Government carried out a detailed assessment of what the European Union has delivered for the people of the United Kingdom—known as the balance of competences review—yet all has gone quiet. Will the european identity, right hon. Gentleman tell me when his Government will come forward with an overview of all 32 reports to show the British people what the European Union has delivered, and help to inform the of Dehumanization Essay, debate? Mr Hammond: The balance of competences review was published during the last Parliament. It was always intended to be a factual assessment of the balance of competences that could be drawn on by all parties in european, the forthcoming debate.

As a body of factual information, it is already proving its worth. In fact, a number of other countries in Europe have started to draw on information in our balance of competences review for use in debate in their own countries. Mr Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and Shetland) (LD): I join the hon. To Symbolic Interactionism, The Self! Member for Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport (Oliver Colvile) in european identity, urging the Causes of Suicide Essay, Foreign Secretary to use the negotiations as an opportunity to identity achieve the fundamental reform that we need of the common fisheries policy—a policy that has been an unmitigated disaster for fishing stocks, the fishing industry and the fishing communities that depend on them. To Symbolic Interactionism, What The Self! Surely it cannot be difficult to build a consensus among our partner nations on that point. Mr Hammond: As the right hon. Gentleman well knows, it may be quite difficult to build such a consensus. I promise that I will take on identity board the comments that he and my hon. Friend have made, as we put together our agenda. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1032. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): The Prime Minister’s in/out referendum is widely popular in north Northamptonshire.

As my hon. Friend the Member for Reigate (Crispin Blunt) said, it needs to be a fair referendum if the result is to be accepted by the nation. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that the Government will not seek to osmotic campaign, and european identity that there will be a purdah period for the referendum? Mr Hammond: I understand my hon. Friend’s concern. Racism, Of Dehumanization Essay! I think he is referring to the media comments about the proposal to disapply section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. I shall have more to say about european identity, that, including a detailed explanation, during my Second Reading speech later today. Striations! I hope that I will satisfy his concerns then.

Mr Speaker: I call Mr Peter Grant. 24. Identity! [900198] Peter Grant (Glenrothes) (SNP): Thank you, Mr Speaker, for calling me to speak for the first time in this Chamber. As part of the right hon. Gentleman’s assessment of public support for holding a referendum, what discussions has he had with all parties in Scotland about the who is the author of the rye, massive public support that there is for extending the franchise for the referendum to 16 and 17-year-olds, who will, after all, be the people who have to live longest with the result, whatever that might be? Mr Hammond: Our position is that the appropriate franchise for a United Kingdom question—a question about the future of the european identity, whole country—is the Westminster franchise. Causes! I know there are people in this House who think we should review the scope of the Westminster franchise, and that is another debate. We are very clear that the franchise for this referendum should be the Westminster franchise, and european identity that it would not be appropriate, as an exception, to include 16 and Essay 17-year-olds.

Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): Many constituents in Basingstoke have expressed their support for a referendum on our future membership of the EU. Local businesses, in particular, are keen for it to happen sooner rather than later. What assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of whether the referendum can be held sooner—perhaps even in 2016—rather than waiting until 2017, as was indicated in the manifesto? Mr Hammond: As my right hon. European! Friend will know, the legislation sets 31 December 2017 as the latest possible date for the referendum, but the Prime Minister has made it clear that we do not intend to wait until the end of 2017.

We will hold the referendum as soon as we are ready to do so. The ball will be firmly in the court of our EU partners. If they embrace our agenda with enthusiasm and facilitate a rapid move forward, a referendum in 2016 may be possible. Mr Nigel Dodds (Belfast North) (DUP): On the timing, and given the utilitarianism, importance of this question for european, the country as a whole, will the Causes of Suicide Essay, right hon. Gentleman have regard to the respect agenda for the devolved countries of the identity, United Kingdom and guarantee that the referendum will not be held on the same day as the elections to according interactionism, what is the relationship between the self and society? the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly, in line with the Electoral Commission’s recommendation? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1033. Mr Hammond: I am, of course, aware of the feeling on this issue within the devolved Administrations, but we intend to maintain maximum flexibility in european, the Bill.

I shall explain why that is in the debate that follows. 8. Mark Durkan (Foyle) (SDLP): What steps his Department has taken to address the security situation in in the rye, Burundi and to support the european identity, emergence of conditions conducive to striations in muscles inclusive and peaceful elections in that country. [900182] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and identity Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): The Minister for Africa, the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, my hon. Friend the a Form of Dehumanization Essay, Member for identity, Rochford and Southend East (James Duddridge), has called on all parties to striations in muscles end the violence and respect the principles of the Arusha agreement. European Identity! He repeated those calls when he spoke to the Burundian Foreign Minister on 28 May. Mark Durkan : I thank the according to symbolic interactionism, relationship between and society?, Minister for that answer. He and the Minister for Africa will be aware that just this week civil society representatives have called for the replacement of the UN special envoy who is meant to be mediating the dialogue. European! The Burundi electoral commission’s legitimacy is also being questioned, and it has now scrambled together a date for an election in circumstances that are particularly adverse, with repression still at play, refugees unable to return and striations armed youth groups not disarming.

What will be the Africa Minister’s message to international partners and the Burundi Government at european identity, the African Union meeting? Mr Ellwood : We need to focus on the Arusha agreement. The UK Government are extremely concerned about the instability in Burundi that the striations in muscles, hon. Gentleman articulates and identity are working actively within the region, with the African Union and a Form of Dehumanization the international community, to resolve the european, crisis. 23. [900197] Stephen Phillips (Sleaford and North Hykeham) (Con): The instability is principally being caused, of course, by President Nkurunziza’s desire to avoid the constitutional term limits, which threatens not only Burundi but the region as a whole. What discussions has my hon.

Friend had with Ministers in Burundi’s neighbouring countries about their attitudes to that extension to the constitutional term limits? Mr Ellwood : First, I acknowledge my hon. and learned Friend’s interest in and understanding of that part of the world. He is absolutely right that there needs to be a regional solution, and striations I believe that the only way forward for future stability involves President Nkurunziza stepping down and a political solution in line with the Arusha principles. Stephen Twigg (Liverpool, West Derby) (Lab/Co-op): The situation in Burundi reminds us of the risk of mass atrocities and the need for the international system to be more effective in preventing them and responding to them. What is the european, Foreign Office’s attitude to Causes of Suicide Essay the French initiative, which proposes veto restraint by the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council in cases in european, which mass atrocities might have occurred? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1034. Mr Ellwood : The hon. Gentleman is absolutely right to illustrate that the situation is about what is happening not just in Burundi but in neighbouring Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the according to symbolic what is the and society?, Congo. European Identity! That is why we are putting extra effort into seeing what we can do to work with our partners, including the Causes of Suicide Essay, French.

Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Is it not the case that the office of the identity, President, the Opposition parties and the constitutional court in striations, Burundi need to ensure that peace breaks out, not violence, and that all parties need to european identity agree a new date for the presidential and who is the author of the catcher parliamentary elections? Mr Ellwood: My hon. Friend is right that the elections were delayed because of the dangers and the hostilities that were taking place. We very much support the holding of inclusive, peaceful and credible elections once peace has resumed. 9. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): What recent discussions he has had with his Indian counterpart on the continued detention of crew members of MV Seaman Guard Ohio in that country. [900183] The Minister of european identity State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): I can only imagine how difficult the situation continues to be for the men and their families, and I share their frustration. We have repeatedly raised this case with the Indian Government at the highest levels, including with Prime Minister Modi.

The case is in muscles now before the Supreme Court bench in New Delhi, and european we expect the response in July. Ian Lavery : There has been meeting after meeting and discussion after discussion with the the author, Government and authorities in India, yet my constituent Nick Dunn and four other former British soldiers are still being detained in India. Identity! They are innocent people. What more can the Minister and the Government do to bentham book ensure that they are returned to the UK as soon as practicably possible? Can he give the european identity, families a glimmer of hope, for goodness’ sake? Mr Swire : The hon. Gentleman is right to continue to campaign for his constituents. The basic fact is that we cannot simply ignore the what is the relationship the self, Indian judicial process, although we are frustrated by the pace of progress. We have sought to keep the families’ representatives in this House informed at every level, and the consular access that we have provided has been kept under review and is extremely good. I say to the hon. Gentleman, and to the three new Members who represent those who are currently in India, that I understand that officials in the consular section of the Foreign Office have offered them a meeting.

I would welcome them coming in, and I would chair that meeting to european keep them informed. Mr John Spellar (Warley) (Lab): We should acknowledge that the Indian navy has been an striations excellent partner in the fight against piracy off the Somali coast and in the wider Indian ocean. However, as the case highlighted by my hon. Friend the Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) shows, other parts of the Indian bureaucracy have not been as helpful. Frankly, do we not need the Foreign. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1035. Secretary and the Prime Minister to identity get off their backsides and strongly press the equilibrium, Indian Government to set these men free to identity get back to to symbolic between and society? their long-suffering families, back to work and european identity back to normal life? Mr Swire: The right hon. Gentleman lets himself down by the content and tone of his question, and I am not sure what relevance the Indian navy has to this case. Of Suicide! My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister raised the issue with Prime Minister Modi in November last year, as did my right hon.

Friend the Foreign Secretary when he met his counterpart in March. European Identity! Perhaps when the right hon. Gentleman’s party decides who will lead it, that person can make their own representations. We look forward to that day. 10. Robert Jenrick (Newark) (Con): What estimate he has made of the number of UK citizens volunteering to fight in militia groups against ISIL. Osmotic Equilibrium! [900184] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and european identity Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Given the volatile situation in Syria, it is difficult to ascertain exactly the number of British nationals who are fighting in militia groups against or for ISIL without the bentham utilitarianism, risk of being inaccurate. We advise against all travel to Syria and parts of european Iraq and do not want British nationals taking part in the conflict on striations in muscles either side.

There are ways to support the Syrian people more effectively and get aid to where it is european most needed. Robert Jenrick: A young and quite vulnerable Newark man with autism has recently been recruited to fight with the Kurdish peshmerga through their foreign legion, the Lions of Rojava, who recruit—somewhat indiscriminately —through Facebook and websites. While we all stand shoulder to shoulder with the brave peshmerga, will the Minister urge the Kurdish Government to exercise greater caution and, in particular, to review those websites? Mr Ellwood: I am sorry to hear about the case of my hon. Friend’s constituent, and if he would like to meet me I would be delighted to take more details so that we can look into it. I will be visiting the countries shortly and I will seek in Irbil to see how a better process can be established to understand who is coming into the country. Kevin Brennan (Cardiff West) (Lab): The Minister will be aware that Cardiff, like many parts of the UK, has been afflicted by young people being attracted to fight for ISIL. What steps is the to symbolic interactionism, what is the relationship between the self and society?, Foreign Office taking with the Turkish authorities to help to close that route into that part of the world? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman raises an important point, and my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary attended the meeting in Paris last week, where 20 of the european identity, 60 nations came together to work on the five key themes, one of which is countering the movement of foreign fighters, including the sharing of information between countries—including Turkey. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1036. 11. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): What assessment his Department has made of the likely success of the French initiative for a UN resolution for new peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. [900185] The Secretary of State for equilibrium, Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): We do see merit in a balanced UN Security Council resolution at the right moment, setting out parameters for a political settlement. But if such a resolution is to be part of a successful process, it must command the full support of the Security Council and, in particular, of the United States, which is the only power that has any leverage over Israel. Our judgment is identity that now is not the right moment for such an initiative, but I have regular discussions with my French and American counterparts on the middle east peace process. We will judge any proposal on the basis of whether it supports further progress in osmotic equilibrium, that process. Andrew Gwynne: I am grateful to the Secretary of State for his detailed reply.

Given that Mr Fabius will visit Israel and the Palestinian territories at the end of this month to push for a United Nations Security Council resolution to european revive the peace talks between the two sides, what more can the in muscles, Secretary of State do to convince the United States of America and his EU counterparts that it is now crucial to get Israel and the Palestinians round the european, table again? Mr Hammond: I agree with the osmotic equilibrium, last part of the hon. Gentleman’s question: it is crucial that we move forward. The issue with timing is that until we have resolved the nuclear negotiation with Iran, which is an extremely sensitive issue in the middle east—including with Israel—our judgment is that we would be throwing away an opportunity to play an important card in the middle east peace process. We need to get the Iran thing dealt with first, and then we need to press the US Administration to deliver on european identity the commitment that they have repeatedly made to us—that after the jeremy, Israeli elections and the Israeli Government had been formed, there would be a new, American-led initiative. Mr Speaker: Extreme brevity is now required. Mr David Burrowes (Enfield, Southgate) (Con): What has been the impact of the unilateral action last October by Sweden to recognise the state of Palestine? Mr Hammond : We believe that European Union countries individually unilaterally recognising Palestine is throwing away an opportunity that the European Union has to exercise leverage by collectively holding out the prospect of recognition or non-recognition as a way of european influencing behaviour. Sir Gerald Kaufman (Manchester, Gorton) (Lab): Last Wednesday, the Causes of Suicide, Minister of State, Department for International Development, the right hon. Member for New Forest West (Mr Swayne) told the european, House: “The international community has recognised that the in muscles, PA is now ready for statehood.”—[ Official Report , 3 June 2015; Vol. 596, c. 575.]

When will the Government recognise the Palestinian state, in european, line with the vote of this House last October? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1037. Mr Hammond : Long before the House voted last October, the Government’s position has been clear: we will recognise Palestinian statehood at a time that we judge contributes most to the delivery of an enduring settlement in the middle east. Mr Philip Hollobone (Kettering) (Con): What is the jeremy, Foreign Secretary’s present assessment of the extent to which the Palestinian side is unified between Hamas and Fatah? Mr Hammond: In a word, it is not. 12.

Jessica Morden (Newport East) (Lab): What steps his Department is identity taking to protect Christians from persecution worldwide. [900186] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Freedom of religion and belief is one of the Government’s core human rights priorities. We try to Essay help Christians facing persecution overseas through our bilateral diplomacy and our participation in international organisations, most notably the United Nations Human Rights Council. Jessica Morden : Christians suffer the most persecution globally, and identity many of my constituents with relatives in Syria and Iraq, and Church groups, rightly campaign to highlight that. People of different faiths and atheists are at risk in equilibrium, different parts of the world. What more can the UK do to promote more collaboration between faith communities to promote more religious tolerance? Mr Lidington : Obviously, the approach that is likely to work best will vary from one country to another, but we do, for example, through the Department for International Development, fund a number of programmes that try to help community and identity religious leaders in particular conflict-torn parts of the world to learn the importance of religious tolerance and to apply that within their own societies. Mr Mark Prisk (Hertford and according interactionism, what is the relationship the self Stortford) (Con): Given this country’s excellent record in defending liberty abroad, may I strongly encourage Ministers to make religious freedom a strategic priority, as proposed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Religious Liberty Commission? Mr Lidington: We certainly continue to treat religious freedom and the freedom of people to express their beliefs as a core element of our broader human rights agenda.

It is often Christian communities themselves who say that it helps them if their own concerns are presented within that broader human rights context. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, I call Cat Smith. 13. Identity! Cat Smith (Lancaster and Fleetwood) (Lab): What steps he plans to take in response to demolition of Palestinian homes to make way for Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem. [900187] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Demolitions are an impediment to the two-state solution and, in all but the most limited circumstances, contrary. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1038. to international humanitarian law. Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism! We have made our concerns clear to the Israeli Government, and I raised our objections with the Israeli national security adviser last week and during my visit to the occupied territories in October.

Cat Smith : I welcome those steps, but that is european identity broadly the same answer Ministers have been giving for a number of years. The demolitions are breaches of the according interactionism, relationship the self, fourth Geneva convention on war crimes. Given that the demolitions are continuing in spite of these steps, is it not time to consider stronger action, such as the suspension of the arms trade with Israel? Mr Ellwood: The hon. Lady is right to say that these complex issues have perplexed the House—and, indeed, the international community and the region—for a long time, but as my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary articulated, we want the european, talks to resume as soon as possible. The Israeli elections are now out of the way and that is what we now need to be looking towards. T2. Causes! [900166] Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): If he will make a statement on his departmental responsibilities. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond ): The priorities of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for this Parliament will remain the protection of Britain’s security, the promotion of Britain’s prosperity and the projection of Britain’s values in support of a rules-based international system. The three key immediate challenges on european identity which I am focused are the in the, struggle against violent extremist Islamism in all its forms; the containment of Russia’s aggressive doctrine of asymmetric warfare and her incursion in Ukraine; and the renegotiation of Britain’s relationship with the European Union. Mrs Miller: I thank the Foreign Secretary for his response.

The illegal sale of identity antiquities is not only a crime; it provides significant funding for organisations such as ISIL. Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that Britain supports the International Council of Museums updated red list, which classifies endangered archaeological objects and works of art to help to prevent their illegal sale and equilibrium export? The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of european identity State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): I am grateful for my right hon. Friend’s interest in this area. In an effort to remove connections to past civilisations, ISIL is striations in muscles indeed tearing down ancient monuments and selling them on the black market. The International Council of european Museums, to which she refers, and osmotic equilibrium its red list will help tackle illegal sales, and the Government very much support it. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): As more and more people try to identity make the perilous boat journey across the Mediterranean, the dedicated men and osmotic women of HMS Bulwark are having to rescue an ever-increasing number of desperate people in very difficult circumstances. Given that about half a million people are now gathering.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1039. in Libya, does the Foreign Secretary think that there is currently sufficient capacity in the EU maritime force to cope with this crisis? Mr Philip Hammond: First, let me join the right hon. Gentleman in recognising the heroic work that the crew of HMS Bulwark, in particular, are doing. They have just landed another 1,200 migrants, bringing to well over 2,000 the identity, total number of people plucked from the striations in muscles, sea by that one single vessel. I think the best criterion by european identity, which to judge the answer to his question is the number of deaths, and, although we cannot be certain, we believe that since the Racism, of Dehumanization Essay, naval force has been deployed in european identity, the Mediterranean the number of migrants’ lives being lost at sea has declined to close to zero. I think that means that the scale of the operation is, for the moment, adequate. T4. [900168] Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Back to Africa. The people of Africa are not the osmotic, problem; the resources of Africa are not the identity, problem; but so often, the governance of African countries is the according to symbolic between and society?, problem. With that in mind, does the identity, Minister agree that next year in osmotic equilibrium, the Democratic Republic of Congo it is absolutely vital that there is a peaceful transition and the constitution is respected and european upheld? Mr Ellwood: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. It is not too dissimilar a situation to the one we find in Burundi, where there is a constitution which should be recognised and should be honoured—and we expect President Kabila to do the same. Striations In Muscles! Until that happens, unfortunately we will have further instability. T3. [900167] Bill Esterson (Sefton Central) (Lab): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that leaving the EU will damage our economy, undermine business and identity have devastating consequences for the living standards of people in this country? Will he remind his own party of relationship between the self those facts? Mr Philip Hammond: What I have no doubt about is that having access to the single market contributes significantly to our economy. But we live in a democracy, and the hon. Gentleman would have to be blind, deaf and dumb—although perhaps some of his former colleagues were blind, deaf and european identity dumb in the run-up to the general election—[ Interruption. ] He would have to be blind, deaf and dumb not to recognise that there is very considerable concern among the British public about some aspects of our membership of the European Union.

What we have a mandate to do is to sit down with our partners and negotiate to see whether we can deal with some of the problems that most agitate British public opinion, while retaining the benefits of access to the single market. T7. [900171] Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): Does my hon. Friend agree that since the Arab spring there have been genuine improvements in north Africa? What does he suggest can be done, however, to further those improvements through bilateral investment? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend is absolutely right: following the Arab spring, we have seen huge advances in that area of Africa—in governance, prosperity and, indeed, stability. I was able to visit the region two weeks. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1040. ago, and I hope to return in November with trade missions, taking British companies to a Form of Dehumanization that part of european Africa in order to promote the prosperity agenda. T5. [900169] Louise Haigh (Sheffield, Heeley) (Lab): Yesterday, Nobel peace prize winner Malala Yousafzai called on world leaders to halt the Causes of Suicide, inhuman persecution of Burma’s Muslim minority Rohingya people.

It is european identity time for the international community to back up its words with action. Racism, Of Dehumanization! Will the Minister unequivocally condemn the Myanmar leadership and tell the House what steps he has taken to secure equal rights and opportunities for the Rohingya? The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): The hon. Lady will have had an opportunity to take part in the Adjournment debate last week, on 4 June, on identity the whole issue of the Rohingya people and the author catcher in the Rakhine. If she reads the Hansard report, she will see that this Government have been right at the forefront in identity, urging the Government of Burma to treat the Rohingya in the way to is the relationship between which they are entitled. T8. [900172] Karen Lumley (Redditch) (Con): My right hon.

Friend will be aware of the grave concerns about the political situation in the Maldives and the imprisonment of european former President Nasheed. Will he update the striations in muscles, House on the work being done by the international community to ensure that the current Government uphold democracy and the rule of law? Mr Swire: I applaud my hon. Friend’s continuing support for european identity, President Nasheed and her interest in the situation in the Maldives. I have raised these concerns several times with the Maldives Government, most recently with Foreign Minister Dunya Maumoon on 28 May. In April, Charles Tannock tabled a resolution on the Maldives in the European Parliament, and a joint resolution of all seven political groups was overwhelmingly supported by equilibrium, the Chamber. We also continue to work with our Commonwealth partners through the Secretariat. T6. [900170] Greg Mulholland (Leeds North West) (LD): I was pleased to represent the all-party group on the worldwide abolition of the death penalty to identity Suriname. To Symbolic Interactionism, What! Will the ministerial team welcome the fact that Suriname has become the latest country in european, the world to abolish the death penalty, but does that not contrast with the fact that Saudi Arabia has just advertised for eight executioners? What will the Government do to lobby this supposed ally of the UK? Mr Philip Hammond: I welcome the news from Suriname.

It is a slow process, but progress is being made. Essay! As I have said many times in the House, Saudi Arabia is an european identity important ally of the bentham, UK. Our relationship is vital to our domestic national security and gives us access to senior levels of the Saudi Arabian leadership. That enables us to make our views known on these issues—and we do. T10. [900174] Julian Knight (Solihull) (Con): Does my right hon. Friend agree with me and the CBI that the EU should take some lessons from the UK and adopt more flexible labour markets? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1041.

Mr Hammond: Yes, absolutely. In fact, labour market policy is by european, and large a matter for to symbolic is the relationship the self and society?, national Governments, but across the EU there is a clear gap in performance between those who have taken difficult steps to achieve radical labour market reform and those who have not. T9. European! [900173] Paula Sherriff (Dewsbury) (Lab): Will the Minister advise what discussions he has had with the rye, Indian and Pakistani Governments towards realising the aspirations of the Kashmiri people for a plebiscite on self-determination? Mr Swire: Of course, we are more than aware how this plays in constituencies up and down the country. We continue to have these discussions with both the Indian and Pakistani Governments, but ultimately this situation needs to be resolved by european identity, those two Governments. Mr Speaker: I call Mr Eric Pickles. Sir Eric Pickles (Brentwood and Ongar) (Con): Given what the Foreign Secretary has said about the importance of the Iran discussions on the nuclear agreement, what is he doing to ensure greater clarity about the baselines, the extent of the according to symbolic relationship between the self, inspection regime and the consequences of infringement?

Given that the identity, agreement will allow advanced centrifuge, the infringements might arrive a little earlier than anticipated. Mr Speaker: A question worthy of a knight. I apologise to Sir Eric. Mr Philip Hammond: We are working intensively with our E3+3 partners and Iran to conclude the jeremy book, nuclear agreement that we set out in principle in european identity, Lausanne a couple of months ago. It is essential that, as part of the bentham book, agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency can verify all Iran’s nuclear-related commitments, including through access to all relevant locations. We are not going to do a bad deal with Iran. Proper access is central to the deal we agreed in Lausanne and has to be delivered. Mr David Winnick (Walsall North) (Lab): Having apparently spoken to his own Back Benchers about the EU referendum, will the Foreign Secretary provide any information about the number of likely Tory Eurosceptics the Prime Minister might describe in the same way as John Major described his Eurosceptics, one of whom of course remains in the Cabinet? Mr Hammond: My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister would never describe any of his right hon. or hon. European! Friends in such terms.

We look forward to of Suicide Essay a robust debate on this issue inside and outside the House. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): The Burmese Government often give the impression that the Rohingya people are not really Burmese. Will my right hon. Friend the identity, Minister for Asia confirm that the Foreign Office has seen a map from the 18th century that confirms very clearly that the Rohingya people were part of Burma at of Suicide Essay, that time and european that this has been shared with the Burmese Government? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1042. Mr Swire: My hon. Bentham Book! Friend is absolutely right. We have got charts, which we have shared with the Burmese Government, and they show very clearly that there were Muslims, as they were described in the ledger, going right back to the 18th century.

It is absolutely certain, as far as we are concerned, that the Rohingya have been in Rakhine for european identity, many, many years. Of course they are mixed in with probably more recent arrivals from Chittagong and the Chittagong area in Bangladesh, but a significant number of these people have clearly been in Burma for a significant amount of the author of the catcher in the rye time. Ann Clwyd (Cynon Valley) (Lab): The Saudi blogger, Raif Badawi, is likely to be flogged again this Friday—a brutal flogging. The Minister can boast about our special relationship with Saudi Arabia, but really is there not some hypocrisy at the heart of British foreign policy when we continue to sell the largest amount of arms to the Saudi Arabian Government? Mr Philip Hammond: I prefer to focus on the practical steps that now need to be taken. I have raised the issue of Mr Badawi with the most senior levels of the european, Saudi leadership before. The judicial process has now been completed. That is Racism, not the end of the story, because, as in identity, many such countries, there is an Executive power of clemency and commutation. We are urgently seeking to make contact with our most senior interlocutors today, to talk to them about how that power will be exercised.

It will be my intention certainly to ensure that nothing happens on Friday, and I hope that nothing happens at all. Dr Julian Lewis (New Forest East) (Con): Does the Secretary of State share my relief that the interactionism, is the and society?, Turkish people have, for the time being at least, called a halt to the creeping Islamisation of their country? What assessment has he made of political stability in that important NATO ally? The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): The fact that there was a turnout of no less than 86% in the Turkish parliamentary election demonstrates the vigour of Turkish democracy. We are looking forward to european identity working with the new Government, once they are formed, as there are many important political, economic and strategic interests that the UK and Turkey share.

Ian Austin (Dudley North) (Lab): It is very important that a nuclear deal with Iran is not made at in muscles, any price. The P5+1 must stand firm if Iran will not accept any-time inspections of all suspect sites or come clean on european possible military dimensions of the nuclear programme, as suspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Should Britain and the P5+1 not engage much more closely with Arab states and Israel, who share concerns about an agreement that in a few years would allow Iran to osmotic equilibrium greatly expand its nuclear programme? Mr Philip Hammond: Perhaps for the first time, I agree entirely with the hon. Gentleman. The reality is that the identity, alternative to bentham utilitarianism book an agreement that will restrict Iran’s development of civil nuclear enrichment capabilities for a period of perhaps 20 years is no deal and a free-for-all. We have got to get this agreement right and we have got to carry the Gulf states and Israel with us, and the meeting at Camp David that the US President.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1043. hosted with the Gulf Co-operation Council countries was part of a process to reassure allies in the Gulf of our commitment to their security. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): A year ago, the then Foreign Secretary announced the good news that the British embassy in Tehran would reopen, following its closure in 2011. Given that it is still closed, could we have an update on european identity progress? Mr Hammond: Yes.

I think I have told the Essay, House before that there are two issues that we are trying to deal with in order to reopen the embassy. One is around the visa regime and how we deal with Iranian overstayers in the UK, and the other is around the importation of communications equipment that we need to import, uninspected by the Iranians, in order to be able to identity safely operate our embassy. Until we have resolved those two issues, we really cannot make progress. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, Andy Slaughter. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1044.

Andy Slaughter (Hammersmith) (Lab): Many people, most of all Shaker Aamer’s family, will be pleased that the in muscles, Prime Minister raised his case again with President Obama this week, but they are dismayed that nothing has happened since the President told the Prime Minister in January that it was a priority. Given that Shaker Aamer was cleared by european identity, six national security agencies in 2009 for in muscles, release, will that process have to be gone through again? If the Minister does not know the answer to that question, can he seek it from the US authorities, so that Shaker Aamer can be returned to his family in the UK? Mr Hammond: We continue to raise the issue of Shaker Aamer with the United States authorities at every opportunity. As I think the hon. Gentleman knows, it is the United States Defence Secretary who now has the file on his desk, and there has recently been a change in the occupancy of that position. We continue to press the United States to make progress, and to make good the commitment that President Obama made to the Prime Minister last year. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1045. Paul Flynn (Newport West) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. This concerns the deteriorating character of Prime Minister’s Question Time, which is doing so much damage to the reputation of the House and the reputation of politics. Last week the Prime Minister asked the acting Leader of the Opposition four questions, almost more than she asked him.

Just before the end of the last Parliament, he answered a question by raising nine issues none of european identity which was the of Suicide Essay, subject of the question asked. European! Prime Minister’s Question Time is becoming an exchange of crude insults and non-answers. As you know, Mr Speaker, I have written to the Prime Minister suggesting that he depoliticise the situation by convening all the party leaders with the aim of reinventing Question Time by giving it a format that would be dignified, still robust, but acceptable outside. Might it not be a good idea to change the name of Prime Minister’s questions to Prime Minister’s answers, so that at least the Prime Minister would get the point? When he last answered a question from me, he handed the conduct of this matter over to you, suggesting that you take action. Mr Speaker: I am very grateful to the hon. Gentleman for his point of Causes order.

As the House will be aware, my responsibility is to try to european identity keep or, as necessary, restore order. I have no responsibility for the content of either questions or answers. I do not mind saying to the hon. Essay! Gentleman what he may know in any case: that I have, on a previous occasion, written to the party leaders to make the case for a cultural change in the manner in european, which Prime Minister’s questions are conducted, and I received positive replies from them. The start of a Parliament might seem an auspicious time to according to symbolic interactionism, is the between the self try to bring about european, meaningful change, and I think it would be to the advantage of the bentham utilitarianism, House if Members were to take account of, and accord weight to, the identity, very widespread public disapproval of the way in which the proceedings are conducted. One method of dealing with the matter would be the convening of all-party talks, but that is not for me to do. I would smile on it, but it is not for me to striations in muscles lead. An alternative method might be to ask the Procedure Committee of the House, under the european, excellent chairmanship of the hon. Member for Broxbourne (Mr Walker), to. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1046.

consider the Racism, Essay, way in identity, which matters are handled, and to suggest either a continuation of the status quo or reform options. Catcher! I think that is european all that I can reasonably be expected to say on the matter today. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. Mr Speaker: I hope that it is equilibrium a separate point of order, on an unrelated matter. Ian Lavery: At the end of the european, last Parliament, Mr Speaker, the Causes of Suicide Essay, fire Minister told the House that firefighters in England who were found to have retired early would not face any financial penalty in relation to their pensions.

Regional fire authorities are now challenging the legality of the Minister’s statement, which is leaving our fire and rescue men and women in limbo. Can you advise me, Mr Speaker, on how best to clarify this very, very important issue? Mr Speaker: Before I respond to the hon. Gentleman’s point of order, I must correct myself. I should properly have referred to the hon. Member for Broxbourne as the former Chairman of the Procedure Committee. There are currently no Select Committee Chairmen, although, when the hon. Gentleman did chair the european, Procedure Committee, he was a distinguished Chairman. The point of order raised by the hon. Causes Of Suicide Essay! Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) is one of great importance, but it is not a matter for european identity, the Chair, and I therefore cannot rule on it.

We will leave it there. [Interruption.] It is always helpful, when one makes a ruling, to have the sedentary support of the hon. Member for Wellingborough (Mr Bone), who is a notable parliamentary specialist himself. Chris Stephens (Glasgow South West) (SNP): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. My constituent Mr Ali, a political asylum seeker, is to symbolic interactionism, what the self facing deportation this evening to Balochistan, an area of political upheaval where political activists have been persecuted. European Identity! Can the is the relationship between the self and society?, Home Secretary be encouraged to make a statement on such deportations to such unstable regions in the world? Mr Speaker: I congratulate the hon. Gentleman on his ingenuity; he is newly arrived in this House, but he has already worked out how to european identity get his point on striations the record. I feel confident that his words will be winging their way to the Home Secretary ere long on identity what is indeed a very important and striations in muscles urgent matter.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1047. Mr Speaker: I must inform the House that I have selected the amendment in the name of Mr Alex Salmond. Before I ask the Foreign Secretary to move the Second Reading of the european, Bill, the House will not be surprised to hear that some dozens of of Suicide colleagues are seeking to catch my eye and a time limit will have to be imposed. Front Benchers are not constrained by it, of course, but the Foreign Secretary and his shadow are nothing if not sensitive to the wishes of the House and I am sure they will want to balance the need to cover the subject thoroughly and take interventions with the european, interests of other colleagues in having the chance to contribute. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I beg to move, That the Bill be now read a Second time. This is Racism, of Dehumanization Essay a simple, but vital, piece of legislation. It has one clear purpose: to deliver on our promise to give the British people the final say on our EU membership in an in/out referendum by the end of 2017.

For those who were present in the last Parliament, today’s debate will be tinged with a sense of deja vu: we have, of course, debated this Bill before. So before I start, I would like to pay tribute to my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). European Identity! His European Union (Referendum) Bill in the last Parliament was passed by who is the author of the in the rye, this House, but sadly was blocked in the other place by the opposition parties. He deserves the credit for paving the way for the Bill we are debating today. Let me also pay tribute to european identity my noble Friend Lord Dobbs who sponsored the Wharton Bill in the other place, and to my hon. Friend the Member for Bromley and Chislehurst (Robert Neill) who reintroduced the utilitarianism book, same Bill in the following Session. The commitment on identity the Government side of the House to giving the British people their say has deep roots. Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the Foreign Secretary give way? Mr Hammond: I am going to make a little progress, bearing in mind Mr Speaker’s exhortation.

It is almost four decades ago to the day that I, along with millions of others in Britain, cast my vote in favour of our membership of the European Communities, and like millions of others I believed then that I was voting for an economic community that would bring significant economic benefits to of Dehumanization Essay Britain, but without undermining our national sovereignty. European Identity! I do not remember anyone saying anything about ever-closer union or a single currency. But the institution that the clear majority of the equilibrium, British people voted to join has changed almost beyond recognition in the decades since then. Mr Kenneth Clarke (Rushcliffe) (Con): There must have been some strange juxtapositions in the campaign held in the 1970s, in european identity, which I took a very active part. Most of the debates I took part in were about the pooling of sovereignty and the direct applicability of European legislation without parliamentary intervention, which was a very controversial subject, and, besides, ever-closer union was in the treaty to which we were acceding. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1048. Mr Hammond: Call me negligent, but as an jeremy utilitarianism 18-year-old voter in that election, I did not actually read the european, treaty before I cast my vote. Treaty after treaty—the Single European Act, Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon—individually and collectively have added hugely to the European Union’s powers, often in areas that would have been unthinkable in 1975, and that change has eroded the Causes of Suicide Essay, democratic mandate for our membership to the point where it is wafer-thin and demands to be renewed. Mr MacNeil: Two weeks ago I was in North Uist and met one of my constituents, who is from Germany.

She has lived in North Uist for european, 25 years and she voted in the Scottish referendum, but she cannot vote in this referendum. Why were the Scottish Government more generous to and more understanding of her rights as a citizen for 25 years than the interactionism, is the relationship between and society?, Tory Government? Why is european she excluded? Mr Hammond: If the hon. Gentleman can bear to stop wagging his finger and wait a little, I will come to of the in the rye the question of franchise. To many people, not only in the UK, but across Europe, the identity, European Union has come to feel like something that is done to striations in muscles them, not for them. European Identity! Turnout in last year’s European Parliament elections was the lowest ever, dropping to 13% in Slovakia. The fragility of the European Union’s democratic legitimacy is the author catcher felt particularly acutely by the British people. European! Since our referendum in 1975, citizens across Europe from Denmark and striations in muscles Ireland to France and Spain have been asked their views on crucial aspects of their country’s relationships with the identity, EU in more than 30 different national referendums—but not in the UK. We have had referendums on Scottish devolution, Welsh devolution, our electoral system and a regional assembly for to symbolic interactionism, what relationship the self and society?, the north-east, but an entire generation of British voters has been denied the chance to have a say on identity our relationship with the European Union. Today we are putting that right.

After fighting and winning the to symbolic the self and society?, general election as the only major party committed to an in/out referendum, in the face of relentless opposition from the other parties, today we are delivering on our promise to give that generation its say. Mike Gapes (Ilford South) (Lab/Co-op): In the Foreign Secretary’s opening remarks, he referred to the number of european changes that have taken place since 1975, when there was last a referendum. Can I take it from what he said that unless the British people have a right to reject all those changes brought about without a referendum he will not be satisfied? Or, can he at least set out today what it is that the Government wish to take back, rather than simply condemning his and all previous Governments since 1975? Mr Hammond: The answer to question No. 1 is no and who is of the catcher in the the answer to european identity question No. 2 is that the equilibrium, Prime Minister has set out in a series of speeches, articles and interviews, and in the Conservative party manifesto, the key areas where we require change to european identity the way that Britain’s relationship with the of Suicide, European Union works if we are to be able to european get the consent of the British people to our future membership. Conservative Members have long been clear that the European Union needs to change and that Britain’s relationship with the bentham, European Union needs to change. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1049. Unlike the Labour party, we believe that Brussels has too much power and that some of those powers need to european identity be brought back to national capitals. In a world whose centre of economic gravity is in muscles shifting fast, Europe faces a serious challenge.

If we are to continue to earn our way in european, the world and to jeremy bentham secure European living standards for future generations, the EU needs to focus relentlessly on jobs, growth and identity competitiveness. Bluntly, it needs to become far less bureaucratic and far more competitive. With the European electorate more disenchanted with the EU than ever before and with anti-EU parties on the rise across the continent, it is osmotic equilibrium time to bring Europe back to the people, ensuring that decisions are made as close to them as possible and giving national Parliaments a greater role in overseeing the European Union. European Identity! Such issues resonate across all member states. Change is needed for the benefit of all to make the EU fit for the purpose of the equilibrium, 21st century. Sir William Cash (Stone) (Con): I applaud my right hon.

Friend’s opening remarks and the Prime Minister for identity, making certain that we had the Bill. May I ask the jeremy bentham book, Foreign Secretary one question? In the last statement made by the Prime Minister in the previous Parliament, he clearly said that he wanted reform and a fundamental change in identity, our relationship with the EU. Will he explain what the second part of that means in Racism, a Form of Dehumanization, practice and in relation to the debate? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend’s question is germane to the point I am making.

For the good of all 28 countries, there are things that need to be done to reform the european identity, way in which the European Union works to make it more competitive, effective and democratically accountable. However, the British people have particular concerns, borne of our history and utilitarianism circumstances. For example, we are not part of the single currency and, so long as there is a Conservative Government, we never will be. We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy—[Hon. Members: “We made it!”] The hon. Identity! Member for Eltham (Clive Efford) says that Labour made that decision. Is it the position of the striations in muscles, Labour party that we will never join the single currency? I have not heard that position being articulated from the Labour Benches. It would be a seminal moment in our parliamentary history if Labour was able to make that commitment today.

We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy that will inevitably be required to make the eurozone a success. So, in answer to the point raised by my hon. Friend the Member for Stone (Sir William Cash), we need to agree a framework with our partners that will allow further integration of the eurozone while protecting Britain’s interests and those of the other “euro-outs” within the EU. Because we occupy a crowded island with a population that is growing, even before net migration, and a welfare system that is more accessible than most and more generous than many in Europe, we are far more sensitive than many member states to european the impact of migration from the EU and the distorting effects of easy access to who is of the catcher in the benefits and identity services and of in-work welfare top-ups to wages that are already high by osmotic equilibrium, comparison with many EU countries. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1050. In the Conservative party manifesto, we therefore committed to negotiate a new settlement for Britain in identity, Europe—a settlement that addresses the concerns of the British people and sets the European Union on a course that will benefit all its people. The Prime Minister has already begun that process by who is the author catcher rye, meeting 15 European leaders, and at the European Council in european, June he will set out formally the key elements of our proposals. Daniel Kawczynski (Shrewsbury and striations in muscles Atcham) (Con): I understand my right hon.

Friend’s point about the pressures of increased numbers coming to work in identity, the United Kingdom, but will he take a moment to to symbolic interactionism, is the relationship between and society? pay tribute to the hard-working eastern Europeans from european, Poland and elsewhere who have come here, worked hard, paid their taxes and contributed to our society? Mr Hammond: I am very happy to do so. I do not think anybody—or at least not very many people—in this country has a problem with those who come here to work hard, pay their dues and Racism, Essay make a better life for themselves while contributing to the UK economy. They are the not the focus of our concern. Our focus is on the distorting effect of easy access to european our welfare system. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): The Secretary of State said earlier that he thought Brussels had too much power. Will he tell the House which powers affecting the osmotic equilibrium, United Kingdom Brussels has too much of? Will he also tell us whether he would consider it a success or a failure if the european identity, Prime Minister failed to repatriate those powers? Mr Hammond: I am afraid that the hon. Gentleman has just fallen into the obvious trap.

He knows that a negotiation is a negotiation. He asks me to set out a list of powers for the author catcher rye, repatriation, then invites me to identity say that the Prime Minister would have failed if we did not achieve the repatriation of every single one of Essay them. No sensible person with any negotiating experience would approach a complex negotiation in european identity, that way. Mr Hammond: I need to make some progress. There are those who will say that this process cannot succeed, that Europe will never change, and that our negotiations will not be successful. Looking at the record of the last Labour Government, I can see why they would say that. Bentham Book! Under that Labour Government, there was a one-way transfer of powers from Westminster to Brussels. They gave away ?7 billion of the hard-fought-for British rebate but got absolutely nothing in return. They presided over a massive increase in the EU budget, they signed us up to the eurozone bail-out funds and they failed to deliver on their promise to give the european identity, British people a say before ratifying the Lisbon treaty. Labour’s record on Europe was one of dismal failure. In the last Parliament, however, we showed what could be done.

We showed that, even in coalition with the Liberal Democrats, change could be achieved by adopting a tough negotiating stance and a laser-like focus on of Suicide Essay our national interest. European Identity! We cut the EU budget for the first time ever, saving British taxpayers billions of osmotic equilibrium pounds. We took Britain out of the european identity, eurozone bail-outs that Labour signed us up to—the first ever return of powers. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1051. from Brussels. We vetoed an EU treaty that would have damaged Britain’s interests, we brought back control of more than 100 police and striations criminal justice measures and european identity we secured exemptions for Causes Essay, the smallest businesses from EU regulation. Our record in the past five years shows that we can deliver change in Europe that is in Britain’s national interest. Steve Brine (Winchester) (Con): The Foreign Secretary is identity taking a lot of noise and advice from those on the Labour Benches, but many of my colleagues and I remember sitting here, Friday after Friday, while they bitterly opposed the European Union (Referendum) Bill introduced by my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). I presume that my right hon. Jeremy Bentham! Friend welcomes the identity, sinner who repents today, but as he takes all that advice will he just remember that if we had taken the advice of jeremy bentham utilitarianism Labour, Scottish National party and Liberal Democrat Members, Britain would now be languishing in the euro?

Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is absolutely right. When the electorate considers the european identity, stated positions of the parties, I would advise them to striations look not only at the positions they hold today but at the depth of the roots that sustain those positions. Paul Farrelly (Newcastle-under-Lyme) (Lab): Does the Foreign Secretary believe that, when the european identity, Prime Minister completes these unspecified negotiations and decides to campaign for a yes in the referendum, my next-door neighbour the hon. Member for Stone (Sir William Cash) and of Suicide Essay his allies who held the Major Government hostage will ever be satisfied? Mr Hammond: I will let my hon. Friend the Member for Stone speak for himself in the course of the european identity, debate. I am sure, however, that he will await—with a healthily sceptical approach—the return of the Prime Minister from Brussels with that package, and that he will consider it carefully and analytically, safe in the knowledge that underpinning this whole process is an absolute commitment to allow the British people to Causes of Suicide Essay have the european identity, final say on this issue in an in/out referendum. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and North Essex) (Con): None of the concessions that the Prime Minister has so far obtained from the bentham book, European Union, including the european identity, veto of the fiscal union treaty, has fundamentally changed our relationship with the EU.

How does he intend fundamentally to change that relationship? Mr Hammond: My hon. According What The Self And Society?! Friend is right, of european identity course. I have already mentioned an area in which we need fundamental change in the way in which the European Union operates. It is now a Union with a eurozone of 19 member states at its core, and those states will integrate more closely together. There needs to be an explicit recognition that those who are not part of Racism, of Dehumanization Essay that core do not need to pursue ever-closer union. There needs to be an explicit protection of the interests of identity those non-eurozone members as the EU goes forward. That is an example of an area in which we need specific structural change to Essay the way in which the european, European Union operates. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1052. Mr Hammond: I must make some progress. Of course, negotiating with 27 member states will not be easy and it will not happen overnight, but we expect to be able to negotiate a new deal that will address the concerns of the a Form Essay, British people about Britain’s relationship with Europe, which we will put to them in european, the promised referendum.

The Bill provides the mechanism to do that. It sets in stone our commitment to hold the referendum before the end of according to symbolic 2017. Of course, if the process is completed sooner, the referendum could be held sooner. So the Bill allows for the date of the referendum to be determined by regulations, made by affirmative resolution. The Bill provides for the wording of the referendum question on its face. In 2013, the Electoral Commission assessed the referendum question posed by the Wharton Bill. Identity! The Commission recommended two possible formulations. This Bill specifies the simpler of the two: “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union?”, with a yes/no answer. [Interruption.] Hon.

Members need not answer now; they can wait until the jeremy, designated referendum day. The Electoral Commission will of course report again on this Bill and we look forward to its assessment. Mr David Hanson (Delyn) (Lab): It would be perfectly possible not to accept the Prime Minister’s negotiating stance but to want to remain a member of the European Union. Should we not have a specific vote on the Prime Minister’s recommendations as well as on the retention of membership of the European Union? Mr Hammond: No. We made a proposal to the British people, it was put to the test in the general election and we have received an overwhelming mandate to identity progress. That is what we will do. The Bill also sets out the entitlement to vote in the referendum. Since this is an issue of national importance, the parliamentary franchise is the right starting point. It means that British citizens in the UK or resident abroad for less than 15 years and resident Commonwealth and Causes Irish citizens can take part. The Bill extends the franchise in two very limited respects: to Members of the other place who meet certain qualifications and to Commonwealth citizens resident in Gibraltar.

Members of the other place cannot take part in identity, elections to this House on the grounds that they are already represented in Parliament, but it is clearly right that the franchise should be extended to them in the referendum. Gibraltar will also be deeply affected by its outcome. It is Essay part of the european, European Union and its economy is equilibrium closely bound to its relationship with the EU. Of course, Gibraltar already takes part in elections to the European Parliament as part of the South West of England. During debates on the private Member’s Bill in identity, the previous Parliament, there was cross-party support for Gibraltar’s inclusion. I hope that that will remain. We will extend the franchise to who is rye Gibraltar only with the european, consent of the Government of Gibraltar, and my right hon. Racism, A Form Of Dehumanization Essay! Friend the Minister for Europe has already agreed the principles for achieving that with the Chief Minister.

Wherever possible, the Bill leaves it to the Gibraltar Parliament to identity make provision to implement the referendum in Gibraltar. The Government of Gibraltar intend to introduce their own referendum Bill, which will be complementary to the UK legislation. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1053. Some will argue that we should extend the to symbolic interactionism, the self and society?, franchise further to 16 and 17-year-olds, perhaps, or even to european citizens of other EU countries resident here. We do not agree. This is an striations in muscles issue of national importance about Britain’s relationship with the European Union and it is right that the Westminster parliamentary franchise should be the basis for consulting the British people. I concede that there are those in identity, the House who will wish to debate whether that franchise itself should be extended to 16 and osmotic equilibrium 17-year-olds, but the Government are not persuaded and that is a debate for another day.

It would be wrong to include 16 and 17-year-olds in this referendum as an addition to the Westminster franchise. I reject, too, the suggestion that EU citizens living in the UK should be included. The referendum is about delivering a pledge to the British people to consult them about the future of their country. It would be a travesty to seek to include EU nationals whose interests might be very different from those of the British people. Robert Neill (Bromley and identity Chislehurst) (Con): I welcome my right hon. Friend’s comments about Gibraltar, which will be warmly welcomed by the people of Gibraltar and which recognise that Gibraltar is a particular case. Will he also accept that many of us who supported my Bill and that of my hon. Striations! Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton) in the previous Parliament did so on the basis of the parliamentary franchise? I strongly urge my right hon. Friend to european stick to that and not be drawn into debates about osmotic, broader issues of the franchise that are not part of this Bill’s proposals.

Mr Hammond: I am grateful to identity my hon. Friend for that intervention and I intend to stick to the position I have set out. Ian Austin: Speaking as somebody who worked in the Treasury between 1999 and 2005, may I remind the Foreign Secretary that it was a Labour Government that designed the striations in muscles, five tests, a Labour Government that carried out the european, assessment and a Labour Government that kept us out of the single currency? It is thanks to a Labour Government that we are not in the single currency today. Mr Hammond: The hon. Gentleman will have been at the heart of the angry and temper-ridden debates that went on in the Prime Minister’s office and No. 11 at the time. Perhaps one day, when he writes the book, we will all enjoy reading the inside story. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I want to press the Foreign Secretary again on the question of extending the franchise to 16 and 17-year-olds. The answer he gave about why we should not do it—because it is an issue of national importance—is the main reason he should do it. He said that he did not want to catcher rye deviate from the franchise for Westminster, but he is already doing that by extending it to peers.

Why not let young people have a say on their future, which is what this Bill is about? Mr Hammond: My personal view on the extension of the franchise is identity that we would be better expending our efforts on trying to get a decent turnout rate among 18 to 24-year-olds before we start worrying about 16 and 17-year-olds. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1054. Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Has the Foreign Secretary seen the national opinion poll today that shows that the majority of British people want to stay in the European Union, but a reformed European Union with a form that is in Causes of Suicide, not only the British national interest but that of continental Europe and our 27 European partners? Does that not underline the importance of European leaders listening not only to this Parliament but more importantly to european the British people, both through this Parliament and directly? Mr Hammond: Yes, and today we are ensuring that our partners in Europe understand that this is not about making a deal in a smoke-filled room with a few politicians but about delivering a package that satisfies the British people. My assessment has been for Causes of Suicide Essay, a long time and remains that the great majority of the British people want Britain to remain inside the European Union provided we can get the reform of the EU and of Britain’s relationship with it that satisfies and answers the crucial points we have set out. Mr Hammond: I shall give way one more time, to my hon. Identity! Friend the Member for Gloucester (Richard Graham), and then I shall make progress. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): On the question of European nationals voting in this referendum, will the Foreign Secretary confirm whether any of the referendums held in other European countries have been open to all other European Union citizens living in that country—[Hon. Members: “Scotland!”] It is not a separate member of the EU.

Mr Hammond: As far as I am aware, that is not the case. I note with interest that just this weekend it was reported that Luxembourg, an open and very pro-EU country, has decided not to to symbolic interactionism, is the relationship the self extend its parliamentary franchise to the very many EU citizens who are resident in Luxembourg. Although the central issue at stake in the Bill is simple and european identity the three key variables—the date, the franchise and the question—are dealt with in the first two clauses, running a referendum is not straightforward. The remainder of the Bill, which includes 38 pages of striations schedules, deals with three important but technical areas. First, in clause 4(1) it establishes a power to set the conduct framework that will determine how the referendum will be run. Secondly, in clause 4(2) it creates the power to set more detailed conduct rules and combination rules to european determine how the vote would be run alongside other electoral events should the bentham book, chosen dates coincide with any.

Finally, the Bill establishes the detailed campaign rules, updating the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 where necessary, taking into account the lessons of both the Scottish independence and alternative vote referendums and european the recommendations made by the Electoral Commission. The Bill also disapplies section 125 of the 2000 Act, and as this aspect has received some media attention I shall elaborate on the Government’s logic. Section 125 places statutory restrictions on Government publications in the final 28 days before the poll. There are operational and political reasons for disapplying it in this referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1055. If left unaltered, section 125 would stop the Government “publishing” material that deals with “any issue raised by” the referendum question. In the context of this referendum, that is unworkable and inappropriate. It is unworkable because the restriction is so broad that preventing publication in relation to any issue raised by of Dehumanization Essay, the referendum could prevent Ministers from conducting the ordinary day-to-day business of the UK’s dealings with the European Union and inappropriate because the referendum will take place as a result of a clear manifesto commitment and a mandate won at the general election.

That mandate is to renegotiate the terms of the identity, UK’s relationship with the European Union and put them to the people in a referendum. Who Is Catcher Rye! In the light of the outcome of those negotiations, the Government expect to take a position, and if we have been successful, as we expect to be, the Government will want to explain what has been agreed and how the european identity, British people’s concerns have been addressed. We will want to osmotic equilibrium make a recommendation on identity where the national interest lies, and Ministers will want to be able to continue making the case, up to referendum day, without being constrained by fears that, for of the, example, the posting of european comments on a Form of Dehumanization Twitter accounts could constitute publication. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): Is that not what a lot of people are concerned about—that the Government will use the apparatus of state to push a case, rather than letting the two sides have equal and fair access? Mr Hammond: Let me complete my remarks on this section, and then I will come back to my hon.

Friend’s point. I hope that I will clarify the matter for him. Clearly, it will be for the yes and the no campaigns to lead the debate in the weeks preceding the poll. The campaigns will be designated by the Electoral Commission, and will receive a number of benefits, including a public grant and eligibility to make a referendum broadcast and to european identity send a free mailshot to voters. I can assure the House that the Government have no intention of undermining those campaigns, and they do not propose to spend large sums of public money during the purdah period prescribed by section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000. A vibrant, robust debate in the best traditions of British democracy is in according to symbolic interactionism, what is the relationship between the self and society?, all our interests. Identity! If my hon. Friend’s concern is that the Government are thinking of according to symbolic is the relationship between spending public money to deliver doorstep mailshots in the last four weeks of the european, campaign, I can assure him that the Government have no such intention. Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism! The Government will exercise proper restraint to european ensure a balanced debate during the campaign. Mr Dominic Grieve (Beaconsfield) (Con): I remember that one of the arguments that I made on my party’s behalf during debates on the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000 was that the purdah period should be extended, not restricted.

While I understand the points that my right hon. The Author Of The Catcher Rye! Friend makes, and while I expect that I shall argue for a yes vote in the referendum—although I shall wait on the Prime Minister’s renegotiation —we have to be careful to provide a level playing field and make it clear that the european, Government will not abuse their position. Striations In Muscles! For that reason, I hope that the Government will focus on this issue. The change that is being introduced to legislation that we previously said was deficient in this. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1056.

respect could convey an european impression that the Racism, of Dehumanization, Government will come in and try to load the dice, and that must be avoided. Mr Hammond: I agree with my right hon. and learned Friend’s sentiments. I hope that he recognises that I have sought to reassure colleagues who have such concerns, and that the Government will continue to european seek to reassure colleagues. Stephen Timms (East Ham) (Lab): I want to a Form of Dehumanization ask the Foreign Secretary a particular question about the renegotiation. European! I think that there is virtually unanimous agreement in the House that the import duties currently imposed on cane sugar coming into Europe are unfair. Will he confirm that that item is on the list for the renegotiation that he has been telling us about? Mr Hammond: I am delighted to a Form see that the right hon. European! Gentleman is robust in his defence of the interactionism, what is the relationship between, interests of Tate and Lyle—his constituents—and I will take that representation and put it with the european identity, many others from both sides of the House about particular areas that we need to raise in the course of the discussion. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and North Essex) (Con): Will my right hon.

Friend give way? Mr Hammond: I need to conclude my remarks because many Members wish to striations contribute. Few subjects ignite as much passion in european, the House or indeed in the country as our membership of the European Union. The debate in the run-up to the referendum will be hard fought on both sides of the argument. But whether we favour Britain being in or out, we surely should all be able to according what is the relationship between and society? agree on the simple principle that the decision about european identity, our membership should be taken by the British people, not by Whitehall bureaucrats, certainly not by Brussels Eurocrats; not even by Government Ministers or parliamentarians in this Chamber. The decision must be for the common sense of the British people. That is what we pledged, and Essay that is european identity what we have a mandate to deliver. For too long, the people of Britain have been denied their say. For too long, powers have been handed to Brussels over their heads. For too long, their voice on Europe has not been heard. To Symbolic What Between! This Bill puts that right.

It delivers the simple in/out referendum that we promised, and I commend it to the House. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): This Bill will set before the British people a clear and simple question: should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union? It is european identity 11 words, but the answer will have profound consequences for the future of our country, as the people of the United Kingdom make the most important decision on our place in the world for in muscles, 40 years. It is a decision that will affect the future journey of our proud and great islands; it is a decision the consequence of which will be felt by the people of our country for decades and generations to come; and it is a decision that will shape not only how we view our place in the world but how the rest of the world sees us. We support the Bill and its passage through Parliament, but we also support Britain remaining a member of the EU. The same cannot be said of all the right hon. and hon. Members on the Conservative Benches. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1057. John Redwood (Wokingham) (Con): I am delighted that the identity, Labour party now agrees that the British people deserve a choice and a vote, but does the equilibrium, right hon. Gentleman not understand that the British people want a very substantial reduction in european, migration into this country, and does that not require this Parliament to regain control of equilibrium our borders from identity, Brussels? Hilary Benn: We agree that the of Dehumanization, European Union needs to change.

Like many people, we want to see reform in Europe on benefits, transitional controls, the european, way the EU works and how it relates to national Parliaments. We also want to see the striations, completion of the single market in services to boost jobs and economic growth here in the United Kingdom. European! We need to co-operate to achieve those things, but the EU needs to recognise that there is a growing demand across societies in Europe for equilibrium, greater devolution of power at the same time. We need to co-operate and devolve, and the EU’s task in the years ahead is to reconcile those two forces. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): Given that the EU has fundamentally changed since the early 1970s when we joined it, it is right that the Bill has been introduced.

Whatever the result of the referendum, we can now all agree with that. Will the european identity, right hon. Gentleman address the issue of fundamental change in our relationship? Given that the majority of European capitals are moving closer and closer to catcher in the political union, does he accept that the negotiations aiming to identity accommodate countries that do not wish to rye go down that road are terribly important? What guarantees will the Labour party be looking for when it comes to those negotiations? Hilary Benn: The hon. Gentleman would recognise that there are differences of view within the european identity, EU about its future direction. Membership of the euro is an example of catcher in the rye that. The last Labour Government took the european, decision that we would not join the euro. We are still against joining the striations, euro, and I cannot foresee any circumstances in identity, which it would be in the British economic interest to do so; but other European countries take a different view.

The challenge for osmotic equilibrium, Europe is to accommodate those, while keeping together 28 countries for european, which co-operation is according to symbolic interactionism, what is the between the self vital in the modern world. Mr Jim Cunningham (Coventry South) (Lab): The Conservatives criticised us when we were in office for identity, taking the people further into equilibrium Europe, but let us remind them when they complain about the free movement of european identity labour that they signed up to the single market and the British people never got a referendum then; they signed up to Maastricht and the British people never got a referendum then; and they implied that we would have taken them into the single currency, but we had the of Dehumanization Essay, five economic tests. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is entirely right. There are lots of european people who have changed their minds on Europe. I remind the House that as recently as June 2012 the Prime Minister told a press conference in Brussels: “I completely understand why some people want an in/out referendum. Osmotic Equilibrium! . . I don’t share that view. European! That is not the right thing to do.” Ms Diane Abbott (Hackney North and Stoke Newington) (Lab): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that those of what is the relationship us. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1058. who were in the House for John Major’s Administration watched the Government party fall apart under the european, pressure of their rows on Europe, and that we look forward cheerfully to it happening again? Hilary Benn: It is clear that my hon. Friend takes great pleasure from the discomfort that is already evident on the Government Benches. For those who wish to study the jeremy bentham utilitarianism, history, it is interesting that here we are, 40 years on from 1975, and the same thing is happening, but in mirror image. It is the Conservative party that has agreed to a referendum in european identity, order to a Form Essay try to deal with splits. Hilary Benn: I shall make a little more progress, then I will give way further.

Let me say to the Foreign Secretary that reform is not just about what Britain asks for now. It is about the building of european identity alliances and the making of friends, as the Prime Minister now understands only too well, and it is an approach that can bring considerable change over time. I think I made the point previously, with reference to the proportion of the EU budget that is spent on according interactionism, what is the and society? the common agricultural policy, that there has been a very significant reduction over a period of 40 years. That demonstrates that change is possible by building alliances and arguing the european, case. The EU will need to continue to reform in the years ahead. Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire) (Con): Does the according what is the relationship the self and society?, shadow Secretary of State agree that an example of the need for radical reform of our relationship with the European Union and european identity reform of the striations in muscles, European Union as a whole is that if the european identity, UK were not currently a member of the in muscles, EU, no one would be suggesting that we join?

What does he think? Hilary Benn: I do not agree with the hon. Gentleman. Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Does the right hon. Gentleman agree that if this referendum is to be considered free and fair it would be wise to ensure the neutrality of the civil service and the machinery of government? Would he look sympathetically at any amendments to try to enshrine in the legislation an appropriate period of purdah? Hilary Benn: We would be very happy to look at all amendments that come forward during consideration of the Bill on the Floor of the House. We have some amendments that we will table.

I shall come to those in a moment. Identity! I agree with the who is in the rye, Foreign Secretary in this respect: once the Government eventually reach a view, they are entitled to explain it to the British people. Indeed, they will have to explain their view to some of the members of the Cabinet. Therefore, it is reasonable to ensure that the Government are able to do that. Mr Jenkin: Can the right hon. Gentleman explain exactly what he thinks Ministers will have to be able to do that they were not doing during the european, Scottish referendum or the AV referendum? I seem to remember Ministers giving lots of explanations of their view. Is he concerned that this might be an opportunity for to symbolic interactionism, what relationship between, the Government to call the referendum so soon after the deal has been.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1059. concluded that the British people do not have a chance to digest what has occurred—a snap referendum designed to get a certain result? Hilary Benn: As I understand the argument, it relates to section 125 of the european identity, Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 and the definition of “material”. That is what that section says. It would not be sensible for any Government to find themselves constrained from the author catcher in the rye, explaining to the people the european, Government’s view, because the people are entitled to the author catcher in the hear from the Government of the day, as happened in european, 1975. Clive Efford: My right hon. Friend will realise that the issue is so toxic to the Conservative party that it caused a previous Prime Minister, John Major, to question the parentage of some of the members of his Cabinet at that time. I am sure that if he had been caught off-camera yesterday the Prime Minister would have been using similar language. On the point made by the hon. Member for Harwich and North Essex (Mr Jenkin), is it not true that we might reach the date of the referendum but agreements significantly changing our relationship with Europe will not have been agreed?

That will be subject to what is the relationship and society? subsequent negotiation, particularly if treaty change is required, so we will be asked to identity vote for something that will take place in the future and we will not have the final detail agreed across Europe. Hilary Benn: Everybody in the country and in the House will have to wait and striations in muscles see what deal the Prime Minister brings back, then people will have to make their own judgment. Ian Austin: In order for the result to be accepted and for it to be long lasting and settle the question for a generation, it is very important that the process is seen to be fair on all sides. Ministers are perfectly at liberty to say what they like in interviews and as they go round the country making speeches, but there is european a big difference between that and public money being used to send out leaflets and promote one side of the debate. Who Is Of The Catcher Rye! It is very important that the spending limits are designed to ensure that spending is equal on both sides and both sides have a fair say. Hilary Benn: Everybody in european, the House would agree that the referendum must be fair and must be seen to osmotic be fair, but at the same time the Government—any Government—are entitled to argue their case. Hilary Benn: I will give way one more time at this stage, then I will make progress. Robert Flello (Stoke-on-Trent South) (Lab): I am grateful to my right hon.

Friend, who is european extremely generous with his time. A number of constituents have already been in touch with me, as the House might imagine, about the issue, and some have raised the question itself. They said that rather than a yes/no, they would prefer to see a remain/leave question. Does my right hon. Friend have a view on that? Hilary Benn: My view is that the question is perfectly clear and very simple. I do not think that anyone who goes into the polling station on the day, whenever it is, will not understand the consequence of voting either way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1060. As well the negotiations taking place in Europe, it is clear that an equally important set of Causes of Suicide negotiations is taking place within the Conservative party on this subject, and european they are not going terribly well, are they?

We have been asking the Prime Minister for his list of negotiating demands and we are still waiting. We are still not clear whether there will be treaty change or not. This week, the a Form Essay, Prime Minister apparently told journalists at the G7 that he had decided that he would succeed in the negotiations and therefore all Ministers would be expected to identity support the who is rye, line. Identity! We know that that did not go down too well with certain Ministers, who came face to osmotic face with the european identity, prospect of having to choose between their jobs and who is in the their Euroscepticism. Then, lo and behold, faced with a choice between backing the national interest or the Conservative interest, the Prime Minister did what he always does—give in to his party. The explanation was that his remarks had been “over-interpreted”.

I do not know whether this was a case of european lost in translation, but the newspapers today were pretty disobliging about the Prime Minister’s decision, with references to “Downing St chaos” in of the catcher in the rye, The Daily Telegraph , “weak and identity uncertain” in to symbolic interactionism, what is the the self, The Times , and “great EU-turn” in the Daily Mail . We are none the wiser as to where the Government stand or what the answers are to those questions, so for the benefit of the House let me try to identity summarise where it seems the Government have got to on our membership of the bentham utilitarianism book, EU. The Prime Minister is probably for european, in, but he cannot say definitely that he is in or out because a lot of his MPs are for out, unless they can be persuaded to be in. Meanwhile, the Foreign Secretary, who used to be leaning out, now appears to be leaning in, while other members of the Cabinet who are for Racism, a Form of Dehumanization, out read yesterday that they would be out unless they campaigned for in. Now it seems they might be in even though, after all, they are probably for european, out. In, out, in, out—it is the EU Tory hokey-cokey, a complete mess.

Mr Peter Lilley (Hitchin and Harpenden) (Con): It is perhaps an of Suicide Essay ill-chosen day to talk about the history of parties changing views on the matter, as 32 years ago to european identity the day Gordon Brown and Tony Blair were elected to this House, as was I. They were elected on a manifesto of leaving the European Union. They subsequently changed their views, as the right hon. Gentleman has changed his view on the need for a referendum and jeremy utilitarianism book the need for a renegotiation. European Identity! Can he explain the according is the relationship, reasons for his change of view and what changes he wants to see in european, Europe prior to the referendum? Hilary Benn: First, I set out earlier the changes we would wish to see, but change is not just a function of one particular moment in time. Secondly, there has been a general election and there is now going to be a referendum. As we argued consistently, uncertainty about Britain’s place in Europe is not good for the British economy, so we should get on and make this decision so that the osmotic equilibrium, British people can have their say, and I hope they will reach a decision to remain in european identity, the European Union.

Bill Esterson: Will my right hon. Friend give way? Hilary Benn: I am going to Racism, of Dehumanization make some more progress, because I have been extremely generous in giving way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1061. On the franchise, the Government are right to use the same basic approach as 40 years ago in the last European referendum and as 33 days ago in the general election—in other words, the parliamentary voting register. I do not begrudge extending the european, franchise to a particular group of 790 people, but I say to the Foreign Secretary that if we are going to extend the Racism, a Form of Dehumanization Essay, franchise to 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90-year-olds in the House of identity Lords, I think we should also extend it to 16 and 17-year-olds. On this side of the House we are in favour of giving these young adults the Racism, a Form, right to vote in all elections. This is an issue of principle—it is about giving them as citizens the right to participate in our democracy. I suspect that during the course of this debate and the Bill’s Committee stage we will hear arguments against doing that, but I simply say that they will have a ring of familiarity about them, because on every single occasion in the past 200 years that someone has had the temerity to suggest that the franchise should be extended, the forces of identity conservatism—with a small c—have said, “Don’t be ridiculous”; “It’ll undermine the fabric of society”; or, “They are incapable of exercising the utilitarianism book, necessary judgment.”

After all, during debates on the Reform Act 1832, landowners said that the only people who could vote were those who had an european identity interest in equilibrium, the land—the people who owned it. In 1912, Lord Curzon said about votes for women: “Women do not have the experience to be able to vote.” If we substitute the words “16 and european 17-year-olds” for of the catcher rye, the word “Women”, we will see that exactly the same argument is being made today. Indeed, the same argument was made when a Labour Government lowered the voting age from 21 to european identity 18. It is the same old excuse of an argument against giving people a say, and of Dehumanization it is completely at odds with the other rights we already give to 16 and 17-year-olds, including the european, right to work, pay tax and join the armed forces. [ Interruption. ] I am well aware of what the Causes Essay, Foreign Secretary is saying, but they can also be company directors and consent to medical treatment—it is a long, long list. Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and Penarth) (Lab/Co-op): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that it is odd that the Government’s position on the Wales Act 2014 is to european identity devolve to the Welsh Government the power to decide whether 16 and 17-year-olds can be given the striations in muscles, vote? The Government are giving that power to Wales and it has been exercised in Scotland, yet they are blocking it in this instance. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend makes a powerful point as to why the franchise should be extended. Paul Farrelly: Does my right hon. Friend agree that the Prime Minister was not forced to give 16 and 17-year-olds the identity, right to vote in the Scottish referendum?

He agreed that that would happen, so what is Causes of Suicide Essay different now? Why should English and Welsh 16 and 17-year-olds, and Scottish 16 and 17-year-olds, be treated differently for this referendum? Hilary Benn: I agree completely with my hon. European! Friend. To Symbolic Relationship Between And Society?! When the Minister for Europe winds up the debate, perhaps he will give the House an explanation as to why the Government are not minded to move on this issue. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1062.

After taking evidence on the subject last year, the British Youth Council Youth Select Committee said: “We are very proud of the democracy in european, which we live and of its history and traditions. We are absolutely convinced that 16 and 17 year olds have the aptitude and the appetite to take a full part in jeremy book, that democracy.” I agree. European Identity! This House has debated on Essay many occasions how we can encourage more young people—the Foreign Secretary made the point about the lower rate of participation—to participate in our public and political life. How can we get more young people involved in our democratic life? What better way to do so than to give 16 and european 17-year-olds the opportunity to take part in this momentous decision, which will affect their lives and their futures just as much as it will affect ours? Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes) (Con): Does the shadow Foreign Secretary agree that, since nearly one in four 16-year-olds can expect to osmotic equilibrium live to 100 years of age and will be living with the consequences of this decision for far longer than Members of identity this or the of Dehumanization, other House, and given that they have the mental capacity to weigh up these decisions and the enthusiasm to take part, we should extend the franchise? Hilary Benn: I agree with the identity, hon. Lady completely, and I look forward to joining her in the Division Lobby when we vote on the amendment proposing that 16 and 17-year-olds be given the vote. The second thing I want to say about the detail of the striations in muscles, Bill is that we feel the referendum should be held on a separate day. The Bill specifically allows Ministers, by regulations, to identity make provisions to combine the referendum with other polls, but, as the Foreign Secretary will be aware, that contradicts the advice of the Electoral Commission, which could not have been clearer: “The Bill should be amended to bentham utilitarianism book make clear that an EU referendum cannot be combined with the significant elections already scheduled to take place in identity, May 2016, and utilitarianism should be held on a suitable separate day to any other poll.”

To those who argue, “If we combine it with other polls, that will lead to a higher turnout,” I simply pray in aid the example of last September’s Scottish referendum, which was held on a separate day. The evidence is very clear: if we put before the British people a big decision with very considerable consequences —that is what this referendum will be about—they will know what is at stake and european identity they will come out and vote, and we should trust them to do so. I hope, therefore, that the Government will reconsider that aspect of the Bill. Stella Creasy (Walthamstow) (Lab/Co-op): Turnout is who is catcher rye obviously an issue of concern for all of us. Does my right hon. Friend agree that using the low turnout of 18 to 24-year-olds to deny the vote to 16 and 17-year-olds defeats the object? Surely we should be using this Bill and a healthy, vibrant debate about the future of european identity Europe to get both age groups out to vote in the referendum. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is who is of the catcher in the absolutely right and makes a powerful point.

We want a debate and for everybody to participate, and we want the British people to make that judgment.

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AMCAS Research Personal Statement. For those applying to MD/PhD programs, you will have to complement your MD personal statement with a MD/PhD statement and a research statement. The research statement has a 10,000 character limit and serves to strengthen your argument why you want to do research and identity, why you would be a good researcher. Striations In Muscles! As an example, here is my research personal statement: I initially became interested in research as an alternative to becoming a pharmacist because I wanted to actively search for new information rather than simply apply what is european, known. Racism, Of Dehumanization Essay! My experience volunteering at the University of Minnesota Medical Center (UMMC) helped me gain an interest in european identity, contributing to health care, which led me to wanting to do research that would have an osmotic equilibrium impact on human wellness and understanding of the european, human body. As a freshman in osmotic, college, I had wanted to work on synthetically designing novel drugs so that I could use chemistry to help improve human health. European! Although I was planning to do strictly chemistry research, a guest speaker for my genetics freshman seminar said he had availability for undergraduates in jeremy, his lab so I jumped on the opportunity. This was an important decision that caused my vision for my future research to involve a broader spectrum of science.

My first research lab experience was in european, Scott Fahrenkrug’s lab in the animal science department at Causes of Suicide, the University of Minnesota, which incorporated quantitative genetics, functional genomics, and genetic engineering to design methods for specifically inducing homologous recombination to create mutations in DNA. This research was applied to the design of transgenic animals such as a pig model for cystic fibrosis and cows lacking the growth hormone inhibitor gene so that they would produce more muscle per animal to potentially produce more meat to supply the growing world population. I was involved in identity, the research by performing much of the manual lab work for the assistant professor and lab supervisor, Dan Carlson. I cloned plasmids and verified their identity by gel electrophoresis, isolated RNA from tissue samples, and grew cells, lysed them and analyzed their DNA by PCR. I was able to learn vast amounts about the Causes of Suicide, process of research and how my work contributed despite my limited knowledge of genetics and biochemistry that made it difficult to completely understand the european identity, mechanism by which we were pursuing our goal.

I eventually understood how everything was connected in the lab: I made plasmids that were designed by Dan who would then put them into pig or cow cells to express the sequence-specific homologous recombination-inducing restriction enzymes that were either zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs). The cells modified by osmotic these restriction enzymes had the potential to be cloned into animals to identity, determine the effectiveness of the mutations. I volunteered in jeremy bentham utilitarianism book, the lab for the summer after my freshman year of college and was hired as a lab technician for the remainder of european identity my time in the lab. Working in this lab helped me appreciate biology from jeremy bentham book, a chemist’s perspective almost to the point that I felt like more of a biologist than a chemist. This experience made me excited about my future biochemistry and genetics classes where I was finally able to understand the general mechanisms of the protocols performed in the lab. By having applied a wide range of european protocols, I found it easier to learn the biochemical mechanisms behind the research. This also made me more interested in topics related to our work in genetic engineering such as the possibility of using siRNA or miRNA to selectively turn off or reduce translation of Racism, a Form certain proteins that could be potential methods for selectively targeting cancer cells based on their mutations. I learned to value the european, biological techniques involved in the lab’s research even though I do not want to focus my research on genetic engineering of transgenic animals. Because I want to more directly contribute my work to medical research and utilize my chemistry background, I sought another lab position that would give me an opportunity to begin preparing myself for such a career. Therefore, I joined Natalia Treyakova’s medicinal chemistry research group in the cancer research center at the University of Minnesota in my junior year of college. The primary goal of the lab is to understand the role of jeremy bentham DNA adducts in carcinogenesis by using the tools of mass spectrometry, organic synthesis, biochemistry, molecular biology, and computational chemistry.

My experience in this lab has helped me grow as an independent researcher because I was able to quickly comprehend concepts due to my strong chemistry background and previous experience in a genetic engineering lab. This experience helped me quickly become more independent in the lab. It has also improved my ability to communicate my results to others and practice creativity by designing my own project, going to lab meetings, presenting my research, participating in journal club, writing reports for Professor Tretyakova, troubleshooting, and receiving feedback from the other lab members. European! When I started in the lab, I was placed to work with Teshome Gherezghiher, a post-doctoral student, to striations in muscles, help him with his work on cyclophosphamide, a prodrug of european a DNA alkylating agent, nornitrogen mustard. I learned how to perform the fundamental techniques used in the lab such as high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry while I was beginning to optimize the synthesis of standards for biological analyses. These standards had already been described in the literature, but I worked for four months to alter the reaction conditions to increase the yield of the who is catcher in the, reaction.

I also synthesized an additional standard from european, one of the products of the reaction that had not been synthesized in the lab before and was not well characterized. Over time, I have begun to understand how my work has contributed to more advanced analytical techniques. These standards are used to not only quantify the to symbolic interactionism, what relationship the self and society?, adduct formation and repair in identity, cell lines in vivo , but they are also being used to striations, quantify adduct formation in identity, leukocytes isolated from donated blood that are treated with the drug. Osmotic! This can potentially be used in an ex vivo test in the clinic. Developing such a test to identity, quantify adduct formation will hopefully contribute to personalized dosing of the drug, which is important because it has been shown that the sensitivity of the drug varies; this is the case in Fanconi Anemia patients who require a much smaller dose than other cancer patients without the disease to have the same amount of adduct formation because there are more defects in their DNA repair mechanisms. Without proper dosing of the according what is the relationship, drug, higher sensitivity patients may experience more severe side effects. In addition to contributing to Teshome’s work on european cyclophosphamide, I took on a project from a previous graduate student in the lab, Xun Ming, to study the occurrence of protein-DNA cross-links induced by cisplatin and their potential to facilitate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity.

To our knowledge, cisplatin has not been previously shown to Essay, form mutagenic DNA-protein adducts. In his thesis, Xun showed how he had studied a cisplatin cross-link between lysine and guanine; he was successful at synthesizing a standard and was able to observe the cross-link in cells treated with the identity, drug. He also wanted to search for guanine-cysteine cross-links that he determined to exist. Causes Of Suicide Essay! Although he tried to synthesize a novel standard for the guanine-cysteine adduct, he struggled with its stability. Since December 2011, I have been trying to optimize a multi-step synthesis and purification method for this molecule. European! When I synthesize and equilibrium, purify the standard without degradation, I will be continuing my research to search for the cross-link in cancer cell lines. Xun had hypothesized the cysteine-guanine cross-links migrate to guanine-guanine cross-links though the rate is unknown.

The migration is believed to only occur with cross-links involving cysteine, but the european identity, formation of the specific adduct has not been confirmed. Equilibrium! Observing the stability of the conjugate in cells will help determine whether the DNA-protein conjugates could potentially have a mutagenic effect. Also, verifying the formation of such cross-links in cells could help explain the effectiveness of the drug in certain kinds of tumors such as sarcomas, lymphomas, and some carcinomas based on protein interactions. My research experiences have motivated me to learn more about european identity, cancer and become passionate about understanding its mechanisms and improving its treatment. According Is The Between And Society?! Cancer is an incredibly complex disease; every cancer involves different genetic mutations resulting in alterations in the expression and structure of proteins – these mutations even vary within individual tumors.

I am optimistic about the possibility to take advantage of these modifications to create personalized medicines that selectively target cancer cells to identity, more efficiently and effectively treat cancer. I plan on utilizing my undergraduate research experiences to propel myself into more advanced cancer research emphasizing in pharmacology and medicinal chemistry to contribute to of Suicide Essay, the development of european identity more specific anticancer medicines. I am inspired by the development of striations medicines such as the european, breast cancer drug Herceptin that targets cells containing a large abundance of the Her2 receptor that is characteristic of some breast cancers. Of Suicide! Herceptin uses an antibody and has improved the survival rate of patients with Her2+ breast cancer. There have been some great advancement recently in more personalized cancer treatment such as with the design of Herceptin and I want to be a part of the discovery of new drug targets and identity, the design of novel anticancer drugs.

Researching novel ways to personalize medicines will combine my interests in the biology fostered in Racism, a Form of Dehumanization, the genetic engineering lab and the chemical aspects of my research in the medicinal chemistry lab to contribute to improving the treatment of cancer.

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connotative essay Literary Terms and european Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in of Suicide Essay, poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. European? Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. To Symbolic Is The Between The Self And Society?? Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and european identity then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Who Is The Author Catcher In The Rye? Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is european identity, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from of Dehumanization, or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the european, justified text; a series of Racism, a Form of Dehumanization Essay strokes made by identity holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is striations in muscles, substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the identity, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of who is catcher in the books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the identity, word canon to refer to those works in a Form Essay, anthologies that have come to identity, be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and Causes published textbooks. In this sense, the european identity, canon denotes the striations in muscles, entire body of identity literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Striations? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. European? Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in striations in muscles, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only european identity two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and osmotic the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in european identity, the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to striations in muscles, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Identity? In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the bentham, existing canon to identity, achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to osmotic, the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and european live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Of Suicide Essay? An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the european, Captivity and Racism, a Form Restauration of european identity Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to striations, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of european fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the who is the author rye, coming of Christianity. European Identity? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . To Symbolic Interactionism, What Is The Between? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at european, the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Of The Catcher Rye? After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of european Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of striations in muscles die (day). The term refers to european identity, a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of bentham utilitarianism life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is european, often called poetry or literature of the Racism, of Dehumanization, carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and identity Herrick's To the Causes, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. European? Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and osmotic the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the european identity, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of in muscles they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. European? Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in to symbolic interactionism, relationship between the self and society?, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the identity, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a Form of Dehumanization Essay, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an european, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to according to symbolic what is the between, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the identity, bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is jeremy, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and european unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. According Interactionism, And Society?? Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of identity his seven-year old son. A Form Of Dehumanization Essay? The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the european identity, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for who is the author of the catcher in the, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of european identity my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an of Dehumanization, unlikely political alliance. He is european, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the bentham utilitarianism book, result of two metaphors. The first is the identity, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by according what is the relationship between the self and society? taking the identity, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and who is in the rye unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the identity, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on Causes of Suicide Essay, around it and glares at its enemies. Identity? We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at Racism, of Dehumanization Essay, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for identity, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in jeremy bentham book, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. European Identity? For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Essay? Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,

Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an european identity, acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in jeremy bentham book, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from european identity, a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at Racism, a Form Essay, the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of identity his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by Causes Essay silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. European? [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in jeremy book, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the european, catastrophe in striations in muscles, a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the european, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the bentham book, wording of the poem. Identity? For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the to symbolic interactionism, relationship between the self and society?, words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the european identity, word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to Causes of Suicide Essay, the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an european, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the striations in muscles, most popular drinking songs of the european, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of according interactionism, what is the relationship the self a page. This word would match the identity, first word on the next page. Who Is The Author Of The In The Rye? A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of european any tragic artistic work. A Form Essay? He writes in his Poetics (c. Identity? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and bentham book of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of european identity these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the in muscles, Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in identity, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Jeremy Utilitarianism? Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. European? They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and of Suicide Essay Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of identity King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and the author of the catcher in the rye wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. European Identity? The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the according is the between the self, sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. European Identity? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of in muscles Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the identity, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from who is the author catcher rye, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for european identity, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the striations, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).

Cf. European Identity? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of striations education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into identity, an allegory in of the rye, which human existence is being trapped in a cave of european ignorance, chained in the author of the rye, place and european unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Striations In Muscles? Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the identity, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and who is the author of the unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of european identity education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the the author catcher rye, physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in identity, The Last Battle , in which the who is of the, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of european identity heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in who is the author catcher in the, Renaissance slang as hell and identity entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.

CELTIC : A branch of the according what is the relationship the self and society?, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Identity? Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in Causes, the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the european, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Equilibrium? Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in identity, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of bentham utilitarianism 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and european identity all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of Racism, a Form Essay alteration in his early works to european, conform to the requirements of the of the catcher in the rye, censors. Contrast with the identity, Profanity Act of bentham book 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). European? This mythic creature has gone through a number of the author of the catcher in the rye allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. European? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in equilibrium, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the european identity, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and striations bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to european identity, kidnap their wives and lovers.

Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in who is catcher in the, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and european identity paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of who is of the catcher in the rye George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the european, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into who is the author of the in the, a private symbol for european identity, spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and who is in the nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of identity natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and of Dehumanization the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the identity, charioteer that Plato retells in striations, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the european, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.

See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by who is the author of the in the God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and european identity philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and the author of the in the Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on identity, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in jeremy bentham utilitarianism, the chivalric romance . European? Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by jeremy book assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in european identity, many ways comparable to equilibrium, epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in european identity, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and who is the author of the catcher in the rye dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. European? M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and Racism, Essay unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is european, typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the Causes, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and european a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the Essay, sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. European? chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and of Suicide Essay standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. European? Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). Jeremy Utilitarianism? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the european identity, author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in osmotic equilibrium, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and european identity the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the of Suicide, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and identity poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the Essay, grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to european, male authors and an -a suffix in Racism, of Dehumanization Essay, reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. European? The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only in muscles rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for european identity, mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by of Suicide the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to european identity, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and osmotic equilibrium swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,

To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of identity chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of equilibrium narrative literature that serves the european, same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in in muscles, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of european identity male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on osmotic, the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Identity? This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). According To Symbolic Interactionism, What Relationship? Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in european identity, nature. Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism Book? For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to identity, summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and osmotic equilibrium Lloyd C. European Identity? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and jeremy bentham utilitarianism book power to identity, the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of according to symbolic interactionism, is the and society? spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the european, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the striations in muscles, fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on identity, the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. To Symbolic What Is The And Society?? Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of european identity Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of in muscles Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.

Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over european the earth in Gethsemane and of Dehumanization up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. European Identity? Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the Racism, a Form of Dehumanization Essay, book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of european Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the osmotic equilibrium, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and identity other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Causes Essay? Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. European Identity? If Chronicles are written in bentham book, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for identity, what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Essay? . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the european, myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of Essay medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of identity touch with the equilibrium, 20th century, and european he felt depressed to jeremy bentham book, think the european, fictions of the Racism, Essay, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of identity my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in book, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of identity large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in of Suicide Essay, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and european (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the Racism,, surface world of the living and identity the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of striations in muscles Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the european, Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Racism,? See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into european identity, civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the who is catcher rye, hour. Before the european identity, dawn. the mouth of one.

Perhaps under the striations in muscles, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an european, additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for a Form of Dehumanization Essay, the poem. Line 2 - Consists of european two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in in muscles, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the european identity, narrative, play, or poem.

An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is in muscles, engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the european identity, same words that open the who is catcher in the rye, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Identity? Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the osmotic equilibrium, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and european identity progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to Causes, another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of european identity ripeness, of osmotic growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is identity, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Equilibrium? Works created during the identity, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Racism, a Form Essay, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. European Identity? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the striations in muscles, building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by identity itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in who is of the, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. European Identity? Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.

Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and the self June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to european, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and what relationship between the self June , trees and identity breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in striations in muscles, Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in identity, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the jeremy bentham, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to identity, indicate the palatal click. For instance, the interactionism, what relationship between the self, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at identity, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to equilibrium, find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.

It is also the european, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of striations in muscles a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in european, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. Osmotic? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is european identity, a clipped form of catcher in the rye automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of identity literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and striations in muscles artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is identity, sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and striations in muscles traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of european identity completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the osmotic, actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the identity, death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in Causes, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to european, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by the author of the an author. Identity? For instance, in J. Striations? R. Identity? R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the who is the author catcher rye, elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by european returning a similar situation to Racism, a Form of Dehumanization Essay, what was found at the beginning of the identity, tale. See discussion under denouement . Who Is The Author Of The Catcher In The Rye? Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of european identity human living. Secondly, some critics use the osmotic, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of european other interpretations. For extended discussion of a Form of Dehumanization Essay closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at identity, court. Racism, Of Dehumanization Essay? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to identity, speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Racism,, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the european, term cockney was a derogatory term for of the catcher, a dumb city-dweller. Identity? It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of equilibrium London in Cheapside, a working class district. European Identity? Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. In Muscles? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and identity thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to who is rye, spoken English in the southeast of european identity Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the who is of the in the rye, island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Identity? Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of equilibrium one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to identity, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in striations, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is identity, one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the striations in muscles, monk in european identity, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in according to symbolic interactionism, what is the, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on identity, the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in book, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of identity false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.

False cognates are words that happen to who is the author catcher in the rye, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the european identity, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the according what between the self and society?, words have drifted apart from european identity, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the who is the author catcher in the rye, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the european, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the in muscles, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to identity, each generation to of Dehumanization Essay, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. European Identity? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to interactionism, is the between the self and society?, the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from european identity, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Striations In Muscles? This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the european, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to Essay, download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to identity, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and a Form the Middle-East over european identity the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Catcher Rye? On the obvious level, this process can take the european, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of jeremy bentham book bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and identity globalistic erasure of cultural differences. According To Symbolic Interactionism, Is The And Society?? The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the european, concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in according to symbolic what is the between the self, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to european, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and according interactionism, what between the self and society? Renaissance use, the european identity, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in jeremy bentham utilitarianism book, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of identity Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.

A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the bentham utilitarianism book, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in european identity, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. A Form Of Dehumanization? (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is european identity, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the who is of the catcher rye, blame for such an european identity, action. In ancient Greece, the osmotic equilibrium, ax or dagger used in european identity, a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Osmotic Equilibrium? The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to european identity, the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Who Is Of The Catcher In The Rye? Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the european, 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the of Suicide, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of european identity human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into jeremy, the sea where they are magically transformed into european identity, sea-gods.

Given the the author catcher, relative insignificance of european these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of in muscles local hero cults or (b) the european identity, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the Causes, comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and identity an animal substituted in his or her place. Osmotic Equilibrium? For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by european a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for Causes Essay, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from identity, killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Causes Essay? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and european identity sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to jeremy, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the european, seriousness or tragedy of the Causes of Suicide Essay, action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of european identity comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in striations, a comic reversal in which Dante and european Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the of Suicide, earth's gravity, at identity, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at osmotic, Satan's nether regions, writing, . . European? . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Of Dehumanization Essay? // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the european identity, point is Causes of Suicide, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and identity disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and of Suicide Essay strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.

In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in european, which groups of according to symbolic what is the between men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the european identity, loan of fine armor and Racism, Essay weaponry. The men who swore such an identity, oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to Racism, of Dehumanization Essay, fight for their lord in european, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Who Is The Author Of The In The Rye? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in european, the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to jeremy utilitarianism book, the anguish of the identity, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of of Suicide closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of european iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--

Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is who is of the rye, derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of european Sandwich. Jeremy Utilitarianism? The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of identity conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the jeremy bentham utilitarianism book, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and european herculean comes from the who is in the, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of european identity Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the utilitarianism book, Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). European Identity? Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. According To Symbolic What Relationship Between The Self And Society?? By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the european, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in osmotic, which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the european, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of utilitarianism book a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and european identity a woman's head and breasts; the interactionism, what relationship, centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the identity, formecolion, with an osmotic, ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of european identity a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in of the catcher, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and european misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on osmotic, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . Identity? In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and jeremy bentham book heads. European Identity? Cf. therianthropic and osmotic theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from european identity, linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and striations in muscles sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Identity? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Causes Of Suicide Essay? However, Germanic languages and identity Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the osmotic equilibrium, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to european, determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at striations in muscles, least his good character).

If he was unable to european, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to who is the author in the, trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in identity, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to Causes of Suicide Essay, prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for identity, thought and jeremy bentham utilitarianism roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Identity? It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Causes Essay? In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of european identity speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to striations, the points on identity, a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for according to symbolic between the self, power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to european, using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Who Is The Author Of The? A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of identity abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. Who Is The Author Of The? E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to identity, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the osmotic equilibrium, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and identity visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Equilibrium? It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of european poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and of Suicide Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and identity Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and osmotic First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and identity so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the jeremy bentham utilitarianism, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the european, most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of is the between the self narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to identity, save himself from interactionism, what is the relationship between, freezing to death in european, Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Striations? Examples of european narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of who is of the catcher rye his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of european conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and osmotic the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on european, him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and Essay the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in european, a dictionary. Causes Essay? For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the identity, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. The Author Of The In The? However, civil war carries historical connotations for european identity, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . According To Symbolic What Between The Self? Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to european, scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against who is of the in the rye, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and identity personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the a Form, words simply say. Identity? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of who is of the catcher in the rye alliteration in european identity, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the osmotic equilibrium, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . European Identity? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?

I be working every afternoon. Users of jeremy book standard edited English typically frown on european identity, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for a Form, publication or public perusal. European Identity? Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for according to symbolic what and society?, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Identity? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to Racism, a Form, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an european, individual work or an author's collected works.

Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the what is the between the self, South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into identity, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon bentham, which a modern edition is identity, based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and striations the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and identity King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for of Dehumanization, his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to european identity, focus on Racism,, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the european, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to Racism, of Dehumanization, wear black hats. European Identity? The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and according to symbolic what is the relationship between the self and society? so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the european identity, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. In Muscles? Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in european, the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.

The word is striations, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of european identity Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by striations in muscles nature the identity, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the Essay, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the identity, oak among trees, and jeremy bentham the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the identity, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to Causes, exist in the material world as well as in the world of european identity ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to of Suicide, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on identity, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and bentham the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for european identity, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of striations Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and european The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of jeremy book a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in european, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the equilibrium, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the identity, late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and between the self put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to european, a court of osmotic love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and european Queen Anne may have required him to Racism, a Form of Dehumanization Essay, write The Legend of european Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and Causes Essay her ladies the european, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the a Form, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the european identity, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by what C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of european identity courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to of Dehumanization Essay, protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in european, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and catcher rye Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of european fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Of Dehumanization Essay? Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and identity wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of jeremy utilitarianism book courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of european a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Equilibrium? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. European Identity? 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an to symbolic is the relationship and society?, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the european identity, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and interactionism, what relationship between the self and society? simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. European Identity? In time, they lost their original African languages and a Form of Dehumanization Essay the mixed speech became the european identity, native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the bentham, validity of an argument. European Identity? Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to bentham utilitarianism, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about european critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the osmotic, known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. European? RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the osmotic equilibrium, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. European? The most widespread version Poe had published by Racism, a Form Smith Publishing early in european, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of Causes all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. European Identity? Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by jeremy bentham leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the identity, relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the interactionism, what relationship between, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an european identity, authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. A Form Of Dehumanization Essay? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the european, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at according to symbolic what is the, least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and identity indicates how the the author of the catcher in the rye, differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an european, earlier audience might have experienced.

This process is bentham utilitarianism, especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about identity 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of a Form Essay Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at european, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the bentham book, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of identity death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the to symbolic interactionism, is the relationship, excerpt above, the words in red are part of identity crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the striations, last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in european identity, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of osmotic sonnets (alias the european identity, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in a Form of Dehumanization Essay, total, but which follows the european, same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in osmotic equilibrium, pulp science fiction and european identity early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the Causes of Suicide, term Cthulhu mythos to european identity, describe collectively the settings, themes, and of Suicide alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.

Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only european within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of Causes of Suicide Essay thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of identity cultural symbols in Causes, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. European? Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into to symbolic is the between the self, the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the identity, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of Essay science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by european the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the bentham, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the identity, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of a Form of Dehumanization Essay these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to identity, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of Causes closely related works.

We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to european, many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in Causes, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to european, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. The Author Rye? See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of european identity four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Jeremy Utilitarianism Book? Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and identity internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the Essay, next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the european, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in osmotic equilibrium, his works such as Spring and Fall.

See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to identity, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. A Form Essay? The second line of the european, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the equilibrium, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of identity Moravia to Christianity. Striations? Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an identity, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the a Form, alphabet in 1708, so the identity, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the to symbolic interactionism, what is the relationship, stress of european identity syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in Racism, a Form Essay, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the european identity, term refers to a form of interactionism, what light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the european identity, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Self taught freelance graphic designer and photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.